Barnaby Rudge Flashcards Preview

Vocabulary > Barnaby Rudge > Flashcards

Flashcards in Barnaby Rudge Deck (47):


ADJECTIVE strongly infatuated: "he became besotted with his best friend's sister" synonyms: infatuated with · smitten with · in love with · head over heels in love with · obsessed with · doting on · greatly enamored of · swept off one's feet by · crazy about · mad about · wild about · carrying a torch for · gaga about/for/over · stuck on · gone on intoxicated; drunk. ORIGIN late 16th cent.: past participle of besot ‘make foolishly affectionate,’ from be- ‘cause to be’ + sot. sot (n.) late Old English sott "stupid person, fool," from Old French sot, from Gallo-Roman *sott- (probably related to Medieval Latin sottus, c.800), of uncertain origin, with cognates from Portugal to Germany. Surviving meaning "one who is stupefied with drink" first recorded 1590s. As a verb, it is attested from c. 1200, but usually besot.



draper (n.) mid-14c. (mid-12c. as a surname), "one who weaves and/or sells cloth," from Anglo-French draper, Old French drapier (13c.) "draper, clothes-seller, clothes-maker," agent noun from drap (see drape (v.)). drape (v.) c. 1400, "to ornament with cloth hangings;" mid-15c., "to weave into cloth," from Old French draper "to weave, make cloth" (13c.), from drap "cloth, piece of cloth, sheet, bandage," from Late Latin drapus, perhaps of Gaulish origin (compare Old Irish drapih "mantle, garment"). Meaning "to cover with drapery" is from 1847. Meaning "to cause to hang or stretch out loosely or carelessly" is from 1943. Related: Draped; draping. drapery (n.) early 14c., "cloth, textiles," from Old French draperie (12c.) "weaving, cloth-making, clothes shop," from drap (see drape (n.)). From late 14c. as "place where cloth is made; cloth market." Meaning "stuff with which something is draped" is 1680s.



de·spond VERB desponding (present participle) become dejected and lose confidence. ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: from Latin despondere ‘give up, abandon,’ from de- ‘away’ + spondere ‘to promise.’ The word was originally used as a noun in Slough of Despond.


mounting block

A mounting block, horse block is an assistance for mounting and dismounting a horse or cart, especially for the young, elderly or infirm



strike (someone) with an open hand, especially on the head • he cuffed him playfully on the ear.



noun 1. a young person, usually in uniform, employed in a hotel or other establishment to run errands, open doors, etc. 2. a young boy attending a bride at a wedding. 3. ‹historical› a boy in training for knighthood, ranking next below a squire in the personal service of a knight.' 4. ‹historical› a man or boy employed as the personal attendant of a person of rank.



inn providing accommodations.


diamond-pane lattices

a. An open framework made of strips of metal, wood, or similar material overlapped or overlaid in a regular, usually crisscross pattern. b. A structure, such as a window, screen, or trellis, made of or containing such a framework.



dismal I. adjective 1. depressing; dreary • the dismal weather made the late afternoon seem like evening. 2. (of a person or a mood) gloomy • his dismal mood was not dispelled by finding the house empty. 3. ‹informal› pitifully or disgracefully bad • he shuddered as he watched his team's dismal performance. origin late Middle English: from earlier dismal (noun), denoting the two days in each month that in medieval times were believed to be unlucky, from Anglo-Norman French dis mal, from medieval Latin dies mali ‘evil days.’



(of a person or animal) not easily upset or excited: "this horse has a placid nature" (especially of a place or stretch of water) calm and peaceful, with little movement or activity: from Latin placidus, from placere ‘to please.’ from PIE *pl(e)hk- "to agree, be pleasant,"



gain·say VERB 1. deny or contradict (a fact or statement): "the impact of the railroads cannot be gainsaid" 2. speak against or oppose (someone). ORIGIN Middle English: from obsolete gain- ‘against’ + say.



with·al ADVERB in addition; as a further factor or consideration: "the whole is light and portable, and ornamental withal" PREPOSITION with (used at the end of a clause): "we sat with little to nourish ourselves withal but vile water"



in different directions; over a wide area



ac·cou·tre [əˈko͞odər] VERB accoutred (past tense) 1. clothe or equip, typically in something noticeable or impressive. from a- (from Latin ad ‘to, at’) + cousture ‘sewing’



I. verb — [with obj.] 1. grasp mentally; understand • he couldn't comprehend her reasons for marrying • I simply couldn't comprehend what had happened. 2. ‹formal› include, comprise, or encompass • a divine order comprehending all men. Latin comprehendere, from com- ‘ altogether’ + prehendere ‘grasp.’



short trousers fastened just below the knee, now chiefly worn for riding a horse or as part of ceremonial dress.



NOUN · ship chandler - a dealer in supplies and equipment for ships and boats. a dealer in household items such as oil, soap, paint, and groceries. a person who makes and sells candles. ORIGIN Middle English (denoting a candlemaker or candle seller): from Old French chandelier, from chandelle ‘candle’ (see chandelier).



a keeper of a park, forest, or area of countryside. a member of a body of armed men, in particular a mounted soldier. US: a commando or highly trained infantryman. a person or thing that wanders or ranges over a particular area or domain: "rangers of the mountains"



a man, typically on horseback, who held up travelers at gunpoint in order to rob them.



the state or feeling of being disturbed or agitated;  Definition of discompose - transitive verb 1:  to destroy the composure of 2:  to disturb the order of composed (adj.) "calm, tranquil," c. 1600, past participle adjective from compose pose (v.1) late 14c., posen, "suggest (something is so), suppose, assume; grant, concede," from Old French poser "put, place, propose," a term in debating, from Late Latin pausare "to halt, rest, cease, pause" (source also of Italian posare, Spanish posar; see pause (v.)). The Late Latin verb also had a transitive sense, "cause to pause or rest," and hence the Old French verb (in common with cognates in Spanish, Italian, Portuguese) acquired the sense of Latin ponere "to put, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)), by confusion of the similar stems. Meaning "put in a certain position" in English is from early 15c. Sense of "assume a certain attitude" is from 1840; the transitive sense (as an artist's model, etc.) is from 1859. Related: Posed; posing.



sally (plural noun) 1. a sudden charge out of a besieged place against the enemy; a sortie. a brief journey or sudden start into activity. a witty or lively remark, especially one made as an attack or as a diversion in an argument; a retort. VERB make a military sortie: "they sallied out to harass the enemy" formal humorous set out from a place to do something: "I made myself presentable and sallied forth" ORIGIN late Middle English: from French saillie, feminine past participle (used as a noun) of saillir ‘come or jut out,’ from Old French salir ‘to leap



N.  the act of calculating or estimating something. 

I was reckoning how long it will take before we get there.

N.  a calculated guess

N.  a witten bill or statement showing how much someone owes (at a restuarant, hotel, etc.)

N.  retribution (payback) for a person's bad actions



NOUN 1. a person's face or facial expression: "his impenetrable eyes and inscrutable countenance give little away" 2. support: "she was giving her specific countenance to the occasion" VERB admit as acceptable or possible: "he was reluctant to countenance the use of force"



ADJECTIVE intended or likely to placate or pacify: conciliate (v.) 1540s, from Latin conciliatus, past participle of conciliare "to bring together, unite in feelings, make friendly," from concilium "council" council (n.) early 12c., from Anglo-French cuncile, from Old North French concilie (Old French concile, 12c.) "assembly; council meeting; body of counsellors," from Latin concilium "a meeting, a gathering of people," from PIE *kal-yo-, suffixed form of root *kele- (2) "to shout." The notion is of a calling together.



NOUN presentiments (plural noun) an intuitive feeling about the future, especially one of foreboding: "a presentiment of disaster" from Latin praesentire "to sense beforehand," from prae "before" (see pre-) + sentire "perceive, feel"



a horse, especially one that is old or in poor health. a horse suitable for riding as opposed to a draft animal.


memory image:  old horse wearing a riding suit (suitable) saying "I can give you a ride but I can't pull the car out of the ditch)

old horse

dressed in riding suit

car in ditch with rope tied to front bumper asking to be pulled



abstracted I. adjective showing a lack of concentration on what is happening around one • she seemed abstracted and unaware of her surroundings An absent man is one whose mind wanders unconsciously from his immediate surroundings, or from the topic which demands his attention; he may be thinking of little or nothing. An abstracted man is kept from what is present by thoughts and feelings so weighty or interesting that they engross his attention. from Latin abstractus "drawn away," past participle of abstrahere "to drag away, detach, pull away, divert;" from assimilated form of ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + trahere "to draw," from PIE root *tragh- "to draw, drag, move" (see tract (n.1)). The meaning in philosophy, "withdrawn or separated from material objects or practical matters" (opposed to concrete) is from mid-15c.



treating with disdain or contempt intransitive sense "mock, jeer, scoff"



1. a small ornamental box or chest for holding jewels, letters, or other valuable objects. 2. a coffin. from PIE *kista "woven container."



inform or tell (someone): "I thought it right to apprise Chris of what had happened" "to notify, give notice," 1690s, past participle of apprendre "to inform, teach" from Latin apprehendere "take hold of, grasp" mentally or physically, from ad "to" (see ad-) + prehendere "to seize" (see prehensile)



(especially of clothing or a color) not flattering: "a stout lady in an unbecoming striped sundress" (of a person's attitude or behavior) not fitting or appropriate; unseemly: unbecoming (adj.) 1590s, from un- (1) "not" + becoming "fitting."



irreverence (n.) Latin irreverentia "want of reverence, disrespect," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" + reverens, present participle of revereri "to stand in awe of" revere (v.) from re-, intensive prefix (see re-), + vereri "stand in awe of, fear, respect," from PIE *wer- (3) "perceive, watch out for."



a close friend or companion: Cambridge student slang, probably from Greek khronios "long-lasting," from khronos "time" (see chrono-), and with a sense of "old friend," or "contemporary."



a person's physical state with regard to vitality, health, and strength • pregnancy had weakened her constitution. a person's mental or psychological makeup.



make (something) clear; explain: Latin elucidatus, past participle of elucidare "make light or clear," from assimilated form of ex "out, away" + lucidus "light, bright, clear," from lucere "to shine," from PIE root *leuk- "to shine, be bright."



say something in answer to a remark, typically rudely or in a discouraging manner: "Harry said that he longed for a bath and soft towels, to which his father rejoined that he was a gross materialist" "to answer," mid-15c., legal term, from Middle French rejoin-, stem of rejoindre "to answer to a legal charge," from Old French re- "back" (see re-) + joindre "to join, PIE root *yeug- "to join."



bad-tempered and unfriendly: "haughty, imperious," alteration of Middle English sirly "lordly, imperious" (14c.), literally "like a sir," from sir + -ly



1. be a sign of; indicate: "she wondered if his cold, level gaze betokened indifference or anger" 2. be a warning or indication of a future event: from be- + Old English tacnian "to signify," from tacn "sign token is from Old English tacen "sign, symbol, evidence" (related to verb tæcan "show, explain, teach"), from Proto-Germanic *taiknam (source also of Old Saxon tekan, Old Norse teikn "zodiac sign, omen, token," Old Frisian tekan, Middle Dutch teken, Dutch teken, Old High German zeihhan, German zeichen, Gothic taikn "sign, token"), from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly."



tenement house "house broken up into apartments, usually in a poor section of a city" is first recorded 1858, American English, from tenement in an earlier sense (especially in Scotland) "large house constructed to be let to a number of tenants" (1690s). c. 1300, "holding of immovable property" (such as land or buildings,) from Anglo-French (late 13c.), Old French tenement "fief, land, possessions, property" (12c.), from Medieval Latin tenementum "a holding, fief" (11c.), from Latin tenere "to hold," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch." The meaning "dwelling place, residence" is attested from early 15c.;



"to lead a dull, empty, or stagnant life



a top-floor or attic room, especially a small dismal one (traditionally inhabited by an artist).



showing great attention to detail or correct behavior: 1630s, probably from Italian puntiglioso, from puntiglio "fine point," from Latin punctum "prick" (from nasalized form of PIE root *peuk- "to prick").




this word comes from the root solace, which means something that provides some degree of comfort against sorrow.  

core meaning: not consolable

as applied to a person's emotional state:

1. an emotional state of sorrow or distress that is to deep to be assuaged

She was disconsolate for months following the death of her husband, and not even her son's marriage could lift her spirits for very long.

as applied to a physical place or thing like a room or a bed.

2, (of a place or thing) causing or showing a complete lack of comfort; cheerless:

core meaning:  providing no comfort or cheer

The doctor's waiting room was disconsolate, with a score of old cushionless chairs being the only furnishings, and not a single picture handing on the yellowing walls.

solace (n.) "comfort in grief, consolation," late 13c., from Old French solaz "pleasure, entertainment, enjoyment; solace, comfort," from Latin solacium "a soothing, assuaging; comfort, consolation," from solatus, past participle of solari "to console, soothe," from PIE *sol-a-, suffixed form of root *sele- "of good mood; to favor" (source also of Old English gesælig "happy;" see silly). Adjectival form solacious is attested 16c.-17c.



a heraldic device or symbolic object as a distinctive badge of a nation, organization, or family: "America's national emblem, the bald eagle" (emblem of) a thing serving as a symbolic representation of a particular quality or concept: emblem (n.) 1580s, "relief, raised ornament on vessels, etc.," from Latin emblema "inlaid ornamental work," from Greek emblema (genitive emblematos) "an insertion," from emballein "to insert," literally "to throw in," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach"). Meaning "allegorical drawing or picture" is from 1730, via sense development in French emblème "symbol



NOUN espials (plural noun) the action of watching or catching sight of something or someone or the fact of being seen: "he withdrew from his point of espial" ORIGIN late Middle English (in the sense ‘spying’): from Old French espiaille, from espier ‘espy.’



a severe abscess or multiple boil in the skin, typically infected with staphylococcus bacteria a swollen area within body tissue, containing an accumulation of pus



a feeling of smug or uncritical satisfaction with oneself or one's achievements: com = intensive prefix + placere = to please please (v.) from PIE *pl(e)hk- "to agree, be pleasant,"