Flashcards in +Barron's 400 Must Have Deck (60):
To leave; to give up
To save their lives, the sailors had to abandon the sinking ship.
Parts of speech: abandonment (n.)
In a harmful way; negatively
Excessive rainfall early in the spring can adversely affect the planting of crops.
Usage tips: Adversely is often followed by affect.
Parts of speech: adversity (n.), adverse (adj.)
Gathered into or amounting to a whole
It is impossible to judge last year’s performance without knowing the aggregate sales numbers.
Usage tips: Aggregate is often followed by a term like sum, total, or numbers.
Parts of speech: aggregate (v.), aggregate (n.)
Preparing the land to grow crops; improvement for
With the development of land cultivation, hunters and gatherers were able to settle in one place.
Parts of speech: cultivate (v.)
To supply with nourishment for plants by adding helpful
substances to the soil
This farm fertilizes tomatoes more than any other crop
Parts of speech: fertilizer (n.), fertilization (n.)
To increase in power; to act with increased strength
Jacob’s long absence intensified his certainty that he should marry Rose.
Parts of speech: intensification (n.), intense (adj.)
The supplying of water to dry land
In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farm-land for irrigation.
Parts of speech: irrigate (v.)
To gain possession of; to get
After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to
obtain the job.
The process by which green plants make their own food by combining water, salts, and carbon dioxide in the presence of light.
Oxygen is a by-product of the process of photosynthesis.
Parts of speech: photosynthesize (v.)
Water that falls to the Earth’s surface
In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of precipitation
ensures rich, green plant life.
To expect; to sense something before it happens
By placing sensors in earthquake-prone areas, scientists can anticipate some tremors in time to warn the public.
Parts of speech: anticipation (n.), anticipatory (adj.)
Extremely harmful; causing financial or physical ruin
The architect died in a catastrophic elevator accident.
Parts of speech: catastrophe (n.), catastrophically (adv.)
To come together with great or violent force
As usual, their holiday was ruined when their in-laws’ views on politics collided with their own.
Parts of speech: collision (n.)
A sudden, often violent, outburst
The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 caused 57 deaths and immeasurable change to the face of the mountain.
Usage tips: Eruption is often followed by an of phrase.
Parts of speech: erupt (v.)
Severe hunger; a drastic food shortage
The potato famine in Ireland in the mid-nineteenth century caused large numbers of Irish people to emigrate to America.
An overflowing of water; an excessive amount
The constant rain and poor drainage system caused a
flood in town.
The political party sent out a
flood of letters criticizing their
Parts of speech: flood (v.)
A strong influence
The speech about the importance of education made an impact on me.
Usage tips: Impact is usually followed by on or of.
Parts of speech: impact (v.)
To keep going, despite obstacles or discouragement; to maintain a purpose
The hikers persevered despite the bad weather and the icy trail.
Parts of speech: persist (v.), persistent (adj.)
To go down suddenly; to decrease by a great amount in a short time
He jumped off the diving board and plunged into the pool.
The value of the company’s stock plunged after its chief executive was arrested.
Usage tips: Plunge is often followed by an into phrase.
Parts of speech: plunge (n.)
To release a thing or an emotion
When they saw the strange man on their property, they
unleashed their dogs.
He is from such an unemotional family, he will never learn to unleash
To adjust to the circumstances; to make suitable
Dinosaurs could not adapt
to the warmer temperatures.
The teacher adapted the exercises for his more advanced students.
Usage tips: Adapt is often followed by to.
Parts of speech: adaptation (n.),
adapter (n.), adaptable (adj.)
Various; showing a lot of differences within a group
India is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world.
Usage tips: An -ly adverb (e.g.,
linguistically) often comes before diverse.
Parts of speech: diversify (v.), diversity (n.), diversification (n.)
To develop; to come forth
Modern-day sharks evolved
from their ancestor Eryops, which lived more than 200 million years ago.
Usage tips: Evolve is often followed by into or from.
Parts of speech: evolution (n.), evolutionist (n.)
The best feature of this car is its heated seats.
Usage tips: Feature is often followed by of.
Parts of speech: feature (v.)
A group of people born at about the same time
As older managers retired, a new generation of leaders took control of the company.
Usage tips: Before generation,
an adjective like new, next, earlier, or older is common.
Generation is often followed by of.
Parts of speech: generational (adj.)
Naturally characteristic; always found within something, because it’s a basic part of that thing
No job can be interesting all the time. Boredom is inherent
in any kind of work.
Usage tips: Inherent is often followed by in.
Parts of speech: inherently (adv.)
Movement from one place to another by a group of people or animals
The migration of farm workers from one state to the next depends primarily on the harvest.
Usage tips: Migration is often followed by to or from.
Parts of speech: migrate (v.), migrant (n.), migratory (adj.)
Related to the body; related to materials that can be seen or felt
Because of the shape of its throat, an ape does not have the physical ability to speak.
The mountains form a physical
barrier between the west and the east.
Usage tips: Physical usually comes before the noun it describes.
Parts of speech: physically (adv.)
A series of steps leading to a result
To get a good job, most people go through a long process of letter-writing and interviews.
Usage tips: Process is often followed by of plus the -ing form of a verb.
Parts of speech: proceed (v.), process (v.)
To continue living (despite some danger or illness)
After getting lost in the mountains, Gordon survived by eating wild plants and catching fish.
Usage tips: Survive is often followed by a phrase with by.
Parts of speech: survivor (n.), survival (n.)
Something that restricts thought or action
The constraints of military life kept Eileen from seeing Private Morris more than once a month.
Parts of speech: constrain (
Being made less clean by a germ or hazardous substance
The contamination in the river came from the factory located just upstream.
Parts of speech: contaminate (
v.), contaminant (n.)
To greatly decrease the supply of a resource or material
The prolonged war depleted the country’s national treasury.
Parts of speech: depletion (n.)
To throw away; to get rid of; to kill
She disposed of her unwanted possessions before moving.
The tyrant cruelly disposed of all his enemies.
Usage tips: Dispose of should be learned as a unit. In this meaning, dispose does not occur without of.
Parts of speech: disposal (n.), disposable (adj.)
In terms of elements; basically
Elementally, coal and diamonds are the same.
Parts of speech: element (n.), elemental (adj.)
Sending out from a small space into the general environment; a substance discharged into the air
The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission
of pollutants into the air.
Usage tips: Emission is usually followed by an of phrase.
Parts of speech: emit (v.)
Complete disappearance; the end of existence
Human beings have caused the extinction of many other species.
Usage tips: Extinction implies an absolute end; an extinct thing cannot be brought back into existence.
Parts of speech: extinct (adj.)
A place where a liquid is collected and stored
Cult members threatened to poison the town’s water reservoir.
Parts of speech: reserve (v.)
To become reduced in size, amount, or value
If you dry your clothing on the “high heat” setting, they may
Parts of speech: shrinkage (n.), shrinkable (adj.)
Firm and dependable; showing little change
He fell because the ladder wasn’t stable.
Parts of speech: stability (n.), stably (adv.)
To change; to get accustomed to something
Travelers are advised to adjust their watches before arriving in the new time zone.
Parts of speech: adjustment (n.), adjustable (adj.)
Chosen simply by whim or chance, not for any specific reason
The decision to build a school in Blackberry Township was arbitrary, without any thought to future housing patterns.
Parts of speech: arbitrate (v.), arbitrator (n.), arbitrarily (adv.)
The number written below the line in a fraction
In the fraction 1⁄2, the number 2 is the denominator.
Usage tips: The phrase lowest common denominator means “the most basic and unsophisticated things that most people share.”
Parts of speech: denominate (v.), denomination (n.), denominational (adj.)
At a very fast rate
In Turkey, the value of the lira has decreased exponentially
in the last several decades.
Usage tips: Exponentially is taken from mathematics, where an exponent is a number indicating how many times something is multiplied by itself. For example, 4^3 contains the exponent “3,” indicating 4 × 4 × 4.
Parts of speech: exponent (n.), exponential (adj.)
The number of contaminants in the water was infinitesimal, so the water was safe to drink.
Parts of speech: infinitesimally (adv.)
To increase or make as great as possible
A coach helps each athlete maximize his or her potential.
Parts of speech: maximum (n.), maximum (adj.)
Being an equal distance apart everywhere
The street where I live runs parallel to the main road through town.
Usage tips: Parallel is often followed by to.
Parts of speech: parallel (n.), parallel (adv.)
A part in relation to the whole
The average employee spends a large proportion of each workday answering e-mails.
Usage tips: Proportion is often followed by of.
Parts of speech: proportionate (adj.), proportionally (adv.)
The cost per unit of a good or service; the motion or change that happens in a certain time.
Postal rates in Japan are among the highest in the world
Some grasses grow at the rate
of one inch per day.
Parts of speech: rate (v.), rating (n.)
To organize or arrange in succession
Volunteers have been asked to sequence the files and organize the boxes.
Parts of speech: sequence (n.), sequentially (adv.)
The research department checks all our articles for accuracy of facts before we print them.
Usage tips: Accuracy is often followed by of.
Parts of speech: accurate (adj.), accurately (adv.)
Even though the villages are adjacent to each other, their residents speak different languages.
Usage tips: Adjacent is often followed by to.
Parts of speech: adjacency (n.)
To press together
To make the foundation stronger, they compressed the soil before pouring the concrete.
Parts of speech: compression (n.), compressed (adj.)
Practically; in a way that can work
Scientists can’t feasibly bring energy from deep ocean currents to where it is needed—on land.
Parts of speech: feasibility (n.), feasible (adj.)
To empty or hollow out
In order to remodel the house, we must first gut it and throw away all the old fixtures.
Usage tips: Gut also means “the stomach of an animal”; this verb makes an image, that the inside of a building is like the inside of an animal.
Parts of speech: gut (n.), gutted (adj.)
In a whole or complete manner
Writing and spelling are taught integrally as part of the reading program.
Parts of speech: integrate (v.), integrity (n.), integral (n.), integral (adj.)
To lie over part of something; to have elements in common
One of the two assistants will likely get fired, since most of their duties in the office overlap.
Parts of speech: overlap (n.)
To keep or hold
The rain fell so heavily that the banks of the river could not retain all the water.
Parts of speech: retainer (n.), retention (n.)
To pass slowly for a long time, as a liquid or gas might
As the containers rusted, the toxic waste seeped into the ground.
Usage tips: Seep is often followed by into or through.