Barron's: Chapter 11 - Testing and Individual Differences Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 11 - Testing and Individual Differences Deck (27):
1

Standardized test

- test items have been piloted on a similar population of people as those who are meant tot take the test and that achievement norms have been established

2

Norms

- something that is usual, typical, or standard

3

Standardization sample

- a large sample of test takers who represent the population for which the test is intended

4

Psychometrician

- people who make the standardization tests

5

Reliability

- the repeatability or consistency of the test as a means of measurement

6

Validity

- the accuracy of a test

7

Aptitude test

- measure ability or potential

8

Achievement test

- measure what one has learned or accomplished

9

Intelligence

- the ability to gather and use information in productive ways

10

Fluid intelligence

- our ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new information and skills

11

Crystallized intelligence

- involves using knowledge accumulated over time

12

Multiple intelligences

- Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria: musical-rhythmic, visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. He later suggested that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion.

13

Triarchic theory of intelligence

- distinguishes three aspects of intelligence: analytic skills, such as the ability to think abstractly and evaluate information; creativity, the ability to invent novel solutions or ideas; and practical skills, which enable one to cope with concrete situations

14

Emotional intelligence

- the capability of individuals to recognize their own, and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately, to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and to manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt environments or achieve one's goal

15

Stanford-Binet IQ test

- he best and most popular intelligence test is a Cognitive ability assessment used to measure intelligence (IQ). The Stanford-Binet measures five factors of cognitive ability: Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, and Working Memory.

16

Wechsler tests

- an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents. The original WAIS (Form I) was published in February 1955 by David Wechsler, as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale, released in 1939.

17

Normal distribution

- About 68% of values drawn from a normal distribution are within one standard deviation σ away from the mean; about 95% of the values lie within two standard deviations; and about 99.7% are within three standard deviations. This fact is known as the 68-95-99.7 (empirical) rule, or the 3-sigma rule.

18

Heritability

- a statistic used in breeding and genetics works that estimates how much variation in a phenotypic trait in a population is due to genetic variation among individuals in that population

19

Flynn effect

- the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from roughly 1930 to the present day.

20

Francis Galton

- best known for his research in eugenics and human intelligence

21

Charles Spearman

- known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearman's rank correlation coefficient

22

Howard Gardner

- known for theory of multiple intelligences

23

Daniel Goleman

- reported on the brain and behavioral sciences

24

Robert Sternberg

- known for triarchic theory of intelligence

25

Alfred Binet

- invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet-Simon test

26

Louis Terman

- revised the Stanford-Binet IQ test

27

David Wechsler

- developed well-known intelligence scales, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

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