Barron's: Chapter 8 - Motivation and Emotion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Barron's: Chapter 8 - Motivation and Emotion Deck (44):
1

Motivations

- feelings or ideas that cause us to at toward a goal

2

Instincts

- automatic behaviors performed in response to specific stimuli

3

Drive reduction theory

- the theory that our behavior is motivated by biological needs

4

Need

- one of our requirements for survival

5

Drive

- is our impulse to act in a way that satisfies a need

6

Primary drives

- biological needs

7

Secondary drives

- learned drives

8

Homeostasis

- a balanced internal state

9

Arousal Theory

- states that we seek an optimum level of excitement or arousal

10

Yerkes-Dodson law

- states that performance increases with physiological or mental arousal, but only up to a point

11

Opponent-process theory of motivation

- states that people are usually at a normal, or baseline, state

12

Incentives

- stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning

13

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

- a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Maslow wanted to understand what motivates people.

14

Self-actualization

- a need to fulfill our unique potential as a person

15

Lateral hypothalamus

- when simulated causes the animal to eat

16

Ventromedial hypothalamus

- causes the animal to stop eating when it is stimulated

17

Set-point theory

- describes how the hypothalamus might decide what impulse to send

18

Bulimia

- people who eat large amounts of food in a short period of time and then get rid of the food by vomiting, excessive exercise, or the use of laxatives. bulimics are obsessed with food and their weight

19

Anorexia

- people who starve themselves t below 85 percent of their normal body weight and refuse to eat due to their obsession with weight

20

Obesity

- people are severely overweight, often by over 100 pounds, and the excess weight threatens their health. obese people typically have unhealthy eating habits rather than the food obsessions of the other two disorders

21

Achievement motivation

- a theory that tries to explain the motivations behind more complex behaviors

22

Extrinsic motivators

- rewards that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves

23

Intrinsic motivators

- rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction

24

Management theory

- systems theory are popular management theories. Theory X and Y, which addresses management strategies for workforce motivation, is also implemented to help increase worker productivity.

25

Approach-approach conflict

- occurs when you must choose between two desirable outcomes

26

Avoidance-avoidance conflict

- occurs when you must choose between tow unattractive outcomes

27

Approach-avoidance conflict

- occurs when one event or goal has botha ttractive and unattracive features

28

James-Lange theory of emotion

- we feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress

29

Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

- similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states

30

Two-factor theory

- states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction.

31

General adaptation syndrome (GAS)

- describes the genreal response animals have to a stressful event

32

Charles Darwin

- he best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

33

Abraham Maslow

- he is best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization

34

William Masters

- best known as the senior member of the Masters and Johnson sexuality research team.

35

Virginia Johnson

- best known as the member of the Johnson sexuality research team.

36

Alfred Kinsey

- was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist

37

William James

- was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician.

38

Carl Lange

- was a Danish physician who made contributions to the fields of neurology, psychiatry, and psychology.

39

Walter Cannon

- was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.

40

Philip Bard

- was a physiologist at Harvard University, who is perhaps best known for his classic treatise on homeostasis.

41

Stanley Schachter

- was an American social psychologist, who is perhaps best known for his development of the two factor theory of emotion in 1962 along with Jerome E. Singer.

42

Thomas Holmes

- was a physician who is considered the father of American embalming

43

Richard Rahe

- examined the medical records of over 5,000 medical patients as a way to determine whether stressful events might cause illnesses

44

Hans Seyle

- he conducted much important scientific work on the hypothetical non-specific response of an organism to stressors.

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