Flashcards in BARRON10: Personality Deck (56):
- UNIQUE ATTITUDES, BEHAVIORS, and EMOTIONS that CHARACTERIZE a person.
TYPE A person?
- always feels TIME PRESSURE; easily ANGERED..COMPETITIVE and AMBITIOUS; --> although higher risk for heart disease
NOTE: some people fit in neither category!
TYPE B person?
- relaxed and easygoing
STAGE THEORIES keeey points? (3)
- development is thought to be DISCONTINUOUS
- in other words, stages are QUALITATIVELY different from each other and
- all people go thru the stages in the SAME ORDER
SIGMUND'S STAGE THEORY? (5)
(each of the stages is named for the PART of the BODY from which ppl DERIVE SEXUAL PLEASURE.
- ORAL: kids derive sexual pleasure from sucking and biting (birth to one year)
- ANAL: (one to three years)
- PHALLIC: (3-5years)
- LATENCY: (6-puberty)
- ADULT GENITAL: (puberty onwards)
-->FREUD..of course! self-explanatory: "girl's desire for a penis" (phallic stage...)
--> FREUD..of course! (phallic stage) fear that if he misbehaves, his father will castrate him (to eliminate him as a rival for his mother's affection) --> so he uses the defense mechanism of IDENTIFICATION...
- boys SEXUALLY DESIRE mothers and view FATHERS as RIVALS for their mother's love --> during FREUD'S PHALLIC STAGE...
(in order to protect themselves from this, use defense mechanism of IDENTIFICATION)
SELF DEFENSE MECHANISM of IDENTIFICATION?
- when a people EMULATE and ATTACH themselves to a person they believe THREATENS them. --> why boys learn to act like men, so as not to fear their father, and to break away from their attachment to their mothers.
- like OEDIPUS CRISIS except for GIRLS.
ANAL EXPULSIVE PERSONALITY?
- tends to be MESSY and DISORGANIZED (
- people who are METICULOUSLY NEAT, HYPERORGANIZED, and a bit COMPULSIVE.
FREUD VOCAB: LIBIDO?
- the ENERGY that directs the LIFE INSTINCTS
What does FREUD say about PERSONALITY?
- says that it consists of THREE PARTS:
ID (unconscious and contains instincts and psychic energy; propelled by the PLEASURE PRINCIPLE),
EGO (follows the REALITY PRINCIPLE, negotiates b/w the desires of id and limitations of environment)
SUPEREGO (one's sense of CONSCIOUS, what is right and wrong)
FREUD VOCAB: FIXATION?
- getting FIXATED in one of the STAGES, either from the result of being UNDERGRATIFIED, or OVERGRATIFIED.
e.g. ORAL FIXATION: ppl who tend to overeat, chew gum all the time, smoke...
e.g. ANAL RETENTIVE/ANAL EXPULSIVE PERSONALITY...
e.g. FIXATION in PHALLIC: overly aggressive and sexual, believes that they are sexually inadequate.
FREUD'S (2) TYPES of INSTINCTS?
--> ID is composed of these two
- EROS: the life instincts (e.g. sex)
- THANATOS: the death instincts (e.g. aggression)
As you cram for your midterm, the .. tells you to go to SLEEP because you are tired or to go to that PARTY because it will be fun. The .. tells you to STUDY because it is the RIGHT thing to do. The .. makes some kind of a COMPROMISE. you will study two hours, drop by the party, then go to sleep.
EXAMPLES of DEFENSE MECHANISMS --> MUFFY has just broken up with ALVIN; how does ALVIN cope? (9..)
- REPRESSION (how was your breakup with muffy? who? oh havn't thought about it)
- REACTION FORMATION (opposite of what you feel:i HATE muffy!!
- REGRESSION (sleeps w/ stuffed bear: returns to earlier, comforting form of behavior)
- RATIONALIZATION (Muffy wasn't really that pretty or smart...come up with beneficial result of undesirable outcome)
- PROJECTION (project one's own feelings on the other person: muffy still loves me!)
- DISPLACEMENT (redirecting feelings at someone less threatening..)
- INTELLECTUALIZATION (in depth research on why teen romances fail)
- SUBLIMATION. (channel frustration into different goal --> write poetry)
CRITICISMS against FREUDIAN THEORY (events from childhood affect how we are today) (5)
- little EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE!!
- even if you DENY what FREUD says about you, he can still insist that you are REPRESSING IT, lending credence to his argument
- has little PREDICTIVE POWER
- overestimates the importance of CHILDHOOD and SEX
- kind of SEXIST: penis envy?? seriously? women probably envied men more for the advantages they enjoyed in society; freud also stated that men have stronger superegos than women
HORNEY and CHODOROW?
- FEMINISTS who criticized FREUDIAN THEORY for being SEXIST --> vs. penis envy, and males have stronger superegos ; put forth WOMB ENVY (men are jealous of women's reproductive capabilities)
IMPACT of FREUDIAN THEORY? (3)
- we now all agree that children are SEXUAL CREATURES and our behavior can be shaped by UNCONSCIOUS THOUGHTS
- greater impact on CULTURE than on CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY --> words such as DENIAL, EGO, UNCONSCIOUS...
- played prominent role in ARTS : DALI claimed to paint paintings from the UNCONSCIOUS; WOODY ALLENS films often feature character undergoing psychoanalysis...
(2) names for OFFSHOOTS of PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY? (2) Best known creators of these theories?
- CARL JUNG
- ALFRED ADLER
What did JUNG propose about the UNCONSCIOUS?
- PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS (like freud's unconscious; contains painful or threatening memories)
- COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS (passed down thru the species , and explains the SIMILARITIES we see across cultures)
JUNG VOCAB: COMPLEX?
- painful and threatening memories and thoughts the person does not wish to confront...
JUNG VOCAB: ARCHETYPE? SHADOW? PERSONA?
- UNIVERSAL CONCEPTS that we all share as part of the HUMAN SPECIES
- represents the EVIL SIDE of PERSONALITY
- people's creation of a PUBLIC IMAGE
Why is ADLER called an EGO PSYCHOLOGIST? What did he believe in?
- he DOWNPLAYED the importance of the UNCONSCIOUS and focused on the conscious role of the EGO.
- believed that ppl were motivated by INFERIORITY (feel of failure) and the desire for SUPERIORITY (desire to achieve);
- also known for his work about the importance of BIRTH ORDER in SHAPING PERSONALITY
- belief that a BASIC SET OF TRAITS that can be used to describe all people's PERSONALITIES.
What did Hans EYESENCK believe in?
- believed that by classifying all people along an INTROVERSION-EXTROVERSION scale and a STABLE-UNSTABLE scale, we could describe their PERSONALITY.
What did Raymond CATTELL develop?
- developed the 16 PF (PERSONALITY FACTOR) TEST to measure what he believed were the 16 BASIC TRAITS present in all ppl, albeit to different degrees.
Paul COSTA and Robert MCCRAE?
- proposed that personality can be described using the BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability (neuroticism)
- STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE used to reduce to the vast number of terms we use to describe ppl to 16 or 5 basic traits (see which traits are commonly grouped together e.g. punctuality, diligence, neatness
What do IDIOGRAPHIC THEORISTS believe in?
- using the SAME set of terms to describe everybody is IMPOSSIBLE. Instead, ppl should be viewed in terms of the TRAITS that BEST CHARACTERIZE his or her unique self.
- a trait that plays a PIVOTAL ROLE in virtually everything a person does.
ppl are influenced by PERSONAL traits
- CARDINAL DISPOSITIONS
- CENTRAL DISPOSITION (more important than secondary...)
What PART OF PERSONALITY do GENES play the largest role in?
What did HIPPOCRATES believe about PERSONALITY?
- personality determined by the four HUMORS (fluids) in the body: BLOOD (cheerful), YELLOW BILE, BLACK BILE, PHLEGM
- although wasn't true, was one of first ppl to recognize that biology impacts personality
William SHELDON's SOMATOTYPE theory?
- identified three types of BODY TYPES:
- ENDOMORPHS (fat; shy, secretive)
- MESOMORPHS (muscular; confident and assertive)
- ECTOMORPHS (thin; friendly, outgoing)
What would B.F. SKINNER believe about the PERSONALITY?
- PERSONALITY is completely determined by the ENVIRONMENT; you can change PERSONALITY by changing ENVIRONMENT.
--> does not take into account COGNITION; most psychologists today don't just call themselves behavioral; they call themselves COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL
What did Albert BANDURA suggest about PERSONALITY?
- personality is created by an interaction of the person's TRAITS, the ENVIRONMENT, and the person's BEHAVIOR. based on TRIADIC RECIPROCALITY.
- personality is affected by ppl's sense of SELF-EFFICACY.
TRIADIC RECIPROCALITY/RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM?
- each of the THREE FACTORS influence the other in a constant LOOPLIKE fashion (e.g brad is friendly, env: brad goes to lots of parties; behavior: bran talks to a lot of ppl)
What did George KELLY propose?
- PERSONAL-CONSTRUCT THEORY of PERSONALITY?
- people develop their OWN, IND. systems of personal CONSTRUCTS – fair-unfair, smart-dumb, exciting-dull...then use these constructs to evaluate the world.
- based on FUNDAMENTAL POSTULATE
- essentially states that people's BEHAVIOR is influenced b their COGNITION and that by knowing how ppl have behaved in the PAST, we can predict how they will act in the FUTURE.
- developed the concept of LOCUS OF CONTROL
ppl with an INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL?
- feels as if they are RESPONSIBLE for what happens to them; tend to be HEALTHIER, more POLITICALLY ACTIVE
ppl with an EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL?
- generally believe that LUCK and other FORCES OUTSIDE of their own CONTROL determine their DESTINIES.
- the belief that what happens is dictated by what has happened in the PAST
--> FREE WILL, vs. DETERMINISM in PSYCHOANALYTIC and BEHAVIORIST models.
HUMANIST THEORIES of PERSONALITY focus on...(2)
- SELF CONCEPT: a person's global feeling about himself; develop thru the
- SELF ESTEEM
(2) of the most INFLUENTIAL HUMANIST PSYCHOLOGISTS are...What did they believe in?
- CARL ROGERS
--> believed that ppl are motivated to reach their full potential - SELF-ACTUALIZE
--> that believe ppl require UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD in order to SELF-ACTUALIZE
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD?
- "blank acceptance;" --> parents that make children feel like they are loved no matter what
- involves asking ppl to interpret AMBIGUOUS STIMULI; since this stimuli is ambiguous, psychoanalysts reason that ppl's interpretations reflect their UNCONSCIOUS THOUGHTS.
- RORSCHACH INKBLOT TEST
- THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST
RORSCHACH INKBLOT TEST?
- showing ppl a series of inkblots and asking them to describe what they see...
THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (TAT)?
- consists of a number of CARDS, each of which contains a PICTURE of a person or ppl in an AMBIGUOUS situation.
- questionnaires that ask ppl to provide information about themselves.
--> is an OBJECTIVE PERSONALITY TEST because NO EVALUATOR BIAS vs. INTERVIEW
What is ONE of the most widely used SELF-REPORT INSTRUMENTS? What is a problem with this?
- MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY (MMPI-2)
- ppl might not be entirely HONEST about their answers