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Flashcards in Basal Ganglia Deck (14):
1

What are the 4 nuclei of the basal ganglia?

1- striatum (caudate nucleus + putamen).
2- globus pallidus.
3- subthalamic nucleus.
4- substantia nigra.

2

Form the motor loop.

Basal ganglia, cortex, and thalamus

3

There are two pathways from the striatum to the thalamus.

Direct pathway:
Striatum ==> internal pallidum ==> thalamus.
Indirect pathway:
Striatum ==> external pallidum ==> subthalamus ==> internal pallidum ==> thalamus.

4

Has a net facilitatory effect on cortex (positive feedback loop).

Direct pathway

5

Has a net inhibitory effect on the cortex (negative feedback loop).

Indirect pathway

6

Dopamine inhibit the .............. pathway and facilitate the ...............
Pathway.

- Inhibit the indirect (through D2).
- facilitate the direct (through D1)

7

Reduce inhibition of thalamocortical neurons and facilitate the cortically initiated movements.

The dopaminergic projection from the SN to the striatum

8

What are the motor functions of the basal ganglia?

- motor planning.
- facilitate automatic performance of learned motor acts.
- prevent unwanted involuntary movements.
- tone and posture.

9

What are the cognitive/limbic functions of the basal ganglia?

Motivation - emotion - memory

10

Huntington’s disease.

Underactivity of the indirect pathway (dyskinesia + hypotonia)

11

Parkinson’s disease.

Overactivity of the indirect pathway (akinesia + bradykinesia)

12

What are the four primary motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease?

1- tremor (resting).
2- rigidity.
3- bradykinesia.
4- postural instability.

13

Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

- autonomic dysfunction.
- cognitive and neurobehavioral problems.
- sensory and sleep difficulties.

14

Treatment of Parkinson’s.

Pharmaceutical - surgical - electrical