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Flashcards in Basal ganglia and cerebellum Deck (21)
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1

What compoents are part of the basal ganglia?

Caudate nucleus

Lentiform nucleus (putamen + external globus pallidus)

Subthalamic nucleus

Substantia nigra

Ventral pallidum,

claustrum,

nucleus accumbens,

nucleus basalis of Meynert

2

What is the striatum?

The lentiform nucleus plus caudate

3

What is the function of the basal ganglia?

Elaborating associated movements (e.g. swinging arms when walking; changing facial expression to match emotions)

Moderating and coordinating movement (suppressing unwanted movements)

Performing movements in order

4

What are the signs and symptoms of parkinsons?

Tremor at rest "pin rolling tremor" in the hand that eventually spreads to the rest of the body

Akinesia - difficulty in the initiation of movements because cannot initiate movements internally

Reduced muscular power

camptocormia (kyphosis)

Bradykinesia

Hypomimic face - absence of movements that normally aniamate the face

Unbalanced, often pass from walking to running pace

5

What is the neuropathology of Parkinsons?

Classically the primary pathology involves the neurodegeneration of the dopaminergic neurons that originate in the substantia nigra and project to the striatum

6

What causes huntingtons?

Chromosome 4, autosomal dominant

CAG repeat (over 35 is diagnostic)

7

What is huntingtons?

Genetic neurodegenerative disorder

Degeneration of GABAergic neurons in the striatum, caudate and then putamen

8

What are the motor signs of Huntingtons?

Choreic movements (Chorea)
rapid jerky involuntary movements of the body; hands and face affected first; then legs and rest of body

Speech impairment

Difficulty swallowing
Unsteady gait

Later stages, cognitive decline and dementia

9

What are the main divisions of the cerebellum?

Vestibulocerebellum (transverse, inferior, antierior)

Spinocerebellum (londitudinal, medial)

Cerebrocerebellum (longditudinal, lateral)

10

What is the function of the Vestibulocerebellum?

Regulation of gait, posture and equilibrium

Coordination of head movements with eye movements

11

What is the function of the Spinocerebellum

Coordination of speech

Adjustment of muscle tone

Coordination of limb movements

12

What is the function of the Cerebrocerebellum

Coordination of skilled movements

Cognitive function,

attention,

processing of language

Emotional control

13

What are the signs of of vestibulocerebellar syndrome?

gait ataxia and tendency to fall (even when patient sitting and eyes open)

14

What is the most common cause of vestibulocerebellar syndrome?

Damage usually caused by a tumour

15

What is the most common cause of Spinocerebellar syndrome?

Damage due to degeneration and atrophy associated with chronic alcoholism

16

What are the signs of of spinocerebellar syndrome?

affects mainly legs, causes abnormal gait and stance (wide-based)

17

What are the signs of of cerebrocerebellar syndrome?

Damage affects mainly arms/skilled coordinated movements (tremor) and speech

18

What are the main signs of cerebellar dysfunction?

Ataxia
General impairments in movement coordination and accuracy. Disturbances of posture or gait: wide-based, staggering (“drunken”) gait

Dysmetria
Inappropriate force and distance for target-directed movements (knocking over a cup rather than grabbing it)

Intention tremor
Increasingly oscillatory trajectory of a limb in a target-directed movement (nose-finger tracking)

Dysdiadochokinesia
Inability to perform rapidly alternating movements, (rapidly pronating and supinating hands and forearms)

Scanning speech
Staccato, due to impaired coordination of speech muscles

19

Define ataxia

General impairments in movement coordination and accuracy. Disturbances of posture or gait: wide-based, staggering (“drunken”) gait

20

What are the inputs to the cerebellum?

Inferior olive projects to Purkinje cells via climbing fibres

All other input to granule cells via mossy fibres and then onwards via parallel fibres

21

Where do the Cerebellar inputs synapse?

Collatereal branches of both climbing and mossy fibres synapse on deep cerebellar nuclei