Flashcards in Basic Laboratory Testing Deck (116)
how is HBV detected?
presence of surface antiagen. The new methododlogy for HBV is to detect the viral DNA.
why is hep b so dangerous?
becomes chronic in some cases (very few), but can increase to 25-90% if the infection is passes from mother to child or was acquired during childhood.
What is the leading cause of liver failure and transplantation and why?
HCV, it becomes chronic in 70-85 % of infected individuals. the anitbody is detectable in 6-12 weeks.
what is the only energy source that the brain uses in terms of sugars?
high fasting glucose values are indicative of what kind of disease?
GIT or diabetes.
(glucose continues to be metabolized by the blood, even after the sample has been collected)
what what glucose level do we typically reflex the sample for A1C?
what does fructosamine meaures?
the amount of glucose that becomes attached to serium proteins and is rough by inexpensive indicator.
what is the gold standard test for evaluating a diabetic risk?
AKA: glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglocin.
A measure of the amount of glycated hemoglobin is a measure of the average glucose concentration over the prior 6 month period. True or false?
false- its 120 days, becausr RBC have a half-life of 120 days. (hemoglobin binds loosely to the N terminal amino acid of hemoglobin)
what are the levels of A1C in relation to diabetic risk?
6.0% or higher, is abnormal
6.5% is diagnostic of diabetes,
(the higher the %, the more the risk)
what test is typically run, with a high A1C in the blood work?
a urine test with a reflect microalbumin test. renal disease is a comorbidity of diabetes.
what is synthesized by the liver? what does the liver produce?
cholesterol, albumin, glucose, transferrin, and the clotting factors.
liver produces bile
what are the four serum enzymes used to measure a livers well-being?
AST, ALT, CCT, AP.
what is a transaminase?
ALT and AST, they are usually the elevated ones during hepatic disease, AST can be associate with alcohol damage and fibroisis.
can ALT and AST (less comon) be elevated d/t a fatty liver, and non-alcoholic steatophepatis (NASH), both associated with obesity?
elevations of GGT and AP are associated with biliary obstruction or inflammation. true or false?
what is typically the cause when only GGT is elevated?
drugs, or alcohol.
Theres a strong connection between GGT ^ and cardiovascular risks.
what are some indirect markers of excess alcohol use? What are secondary tests used?
^ HDL, ^ LFTs (specially GGT) and low blood urea nitrogen.
prefeorm a CDT or HAA. CDT have high correlation with chronic alcohol abuse.
what are the 3 physiological lipid particles of cholesterol?
HDL, LDL, and VLDL
which synthesized lipid particle transports cholesterol from the liver to the peripheral tissue?
which ^ lipid is associated with greater cardiovascular risk?
which lipid particle transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissue back to the liver?
low HDL is a risk factor for the development of which disease?
do male or females tend to have a higher HDL?
what is apolipoproteins?
ApoE4 is a potential protein marker for risk of Alzheimers.- not currently used in insurance- but can find in APS.
what are symptoms are insulin resistant syndrome?
slight elevations of cholesterol, trigs, glucose, and BP, with low HDL in the presence of obesity. >> if more than 5 factors present, theres an increased cardiovascular risk.
what organ is the primary site for the synthesis of proBNP hormone, and what organ is the site of its biological action?
the heart, and the kidneys
why is proBNP produced by the body?
in response to heart failure.
what is NT-proBNP?
its a more stable, and a better indicator or heart failer, its an independent predictor of mortality risk. (tends to be higher in females)