Basic Neuro Embryology (Based on BRS Embryo) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Neuro Embryology (Based on BRS Embryo) Deck (17):
1

What three sources become the peripheral nervous system?

  1. Neural crest cells
  2. Neural tube
  3. Mesoderm

2

What parts of the PNS derive from the neural tube?

Pregangliotic autonomic nerves (sympathetic and parasympathetic)

All nerves that innervate skeletal muscles

3

What are some of the proteins/factors that play a role in neurulation?

BMP-2, BMP-4

Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)

noggin

chordin

FGF-8 (fibroblast growth factor)

N-CAM (neural cell adhesion molecule)

4

What factor does the notochord use to signal induction of the floor plate of the developing neural tube?

Sonic hedgehog (Shh)

A image thumb
5

What are the two openings at both ends of the neural tube?

 

To what do they connect the lumen of the neural tube?

The Anterior and Posterior Neuropores

 

They connect the lumen of the neural tube with the amniotic cavity

6

What does the anterior neuropore become?

 

When does it close?

What happens if it doesn't close?

ANP -> Lamina Terminalis


It closes on day 25

 

Failure to close leads to anencephaly

7

When does the posterior neuropore close?

 

What happens if it doesn't close?

PNP closes on day 27

 

Failure to close leads to spina bifida

8

The lumen of the neural tube gives rise to what?

The lumen of the neural tube gives rise to the  ventricular system of the brain and  central canal of the spinal cord

9

What are the 3 primary brain vesicles?

 

When do they appear?

  1. Prosencephalon (forebrain)
  2. Mesencephalon (midbrain)
  3. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

 

Appear during week 4

10

What 2 flexures appear with the primary brain vesicles?

  1. Cephalon flexure (midbrain flexure): between prosencephalon and rhombencephalon
  2. Cervical flexure: located btwn rhombencephalon and future spinal cord

A image thumb
11

What are the 5 secondary brain vesicles and their origins?

 

When do they appear?

  1. Telencephalon: from prosencephalon
  2. Diencephalon: from prosencephalon
  3. Mesencephalon continues on from before
  4. Metencephalon from rhombencephalon
  5. Myelencephalon from rhombencephalon

 

Appear week 6

A image thumb
12

What are the adult derivatives of the telencephalon?

Cerebral hemispheres, caudate, putamen, lamina terminalis, olfactory bulbs, hippocampus

13

What are the adult derivatives of the diencephalon?

Thalamus and all the hypo, epi, thalami etc.
mammillary bodies, neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary), pineal gland,
many parts of the eye and optic nerve

14

What are the adult derivatives of the metencephalon?

Pons, cerebellum

15

What are the adult derivatives of the myelencephalon?

Medulla

16

What new flexure is visible in the 7th week?

 

What does it become?

Pontine flexure

at the junction between the metencephalon and myelencephalon

 

Becomes the 4th ventricle and Rhomboid Fossa

17

What are the adult derivatives of cranial neural crest cells?

  •  Pharyngeal arch: skeletal and connective tissue components
  • Bones of neurocranium
  • Pia mater and arachnoid
  • Parafollicular (C) cells of thyroid
  • Aorticopulmonary septum
  • Odontoblasts (dentin of teeth)
  • Some sensory and parasymphatic ganglia of cranial nerves (hopefully will not be important until after 1st midterm)