basic neuro exam Flashcards Preview

2018 PCM > basic neuro exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in basic neuro exam Deck (62):
1

level of alertness, appropriateness of responses, orientation fo time and place

mental status

2

components of the neurological exam

mental status
cranial nerves
motor system (muscle testing gait, coordination)
sensory
reflexes

3

cranial nerves in pontomedullary junction

VI VII VIII

4

cranial nerves in myelencephalon

IX, X, XI, XII

5

how to test olfactory n

non-irritating familiar odors
cinnamon, coffee

6

what things can lead to anosmia?

smoking
chronic sinus disease
head trauma
aging
parkinson's disease
cocaine use

7

what pathologies can be noted by inspecting the fundi of the eye

papilledema, pallor, atrophy

8

pupillary light reflex is a test of what two cranial nerves

II and III

9

corneal reflex tests what two cranial nerves

V and VII

10

how to test for hearing

whisper test
finger rub
weber and rinne if present

11

gag reflex components

afferent 9
efferent 10

12

vagus innervates the muscles of the

pharynx except stylopharyngeus
larynx

13

lesions of CN IX result in

loss of gag reflex
loss of sensation in pharynx and posterior 1/3 of tongue
slight dysphagia

14

lesions of CNX result in

dysphonia
dysphagia
dyspnea
loss of gag or cough reflex

15

CNXII lesions result in the tongue protruding what way

deviate to the lesion side

16

1/5 on muscle strength means

slight contractility
no joint movement

17

2/5 on muscle strength means

active movement of body part with gravity eliminated

18

3/5 on muscle strenght testing means

complete ROM against gravity

19

4/5 on muscle strength testing means

complete ROM against gravity with some resistance
movement at the joint with some effort

20

biceps spinal levels

C5-C6

21

tricepts spinal levels

C6-C8

22

intrinsic hand muscle spinal levels

C8-T1

23

quadriceps spinal levels

L2-L4

24

gastrocnemius spinal levels

L5-S2

25

hip flexion

psoas and iliacus L2-L4

26

hip extension

gluteus maximus S1

27

hip adduction/abduction

L2-L4
L4-S1

28

Knee flexion

hamstrings
L4-S2

29

knee extension

Quadriceps L2-L4

30

ankle plantar flexion

gastro S1

31

ankle dorsiflexion

TA L4-L5

32

hypertonia, hyperreflexia
pyramidal pattern of weakness
(weak extensors in arms and weak flexors in legs)
pronator drift
describerl esions where

upper motor neurons

33

wasting, fasciculation, decreased tone or reflexes
peripheral pattern of weakness
muscle disease
describe lesions where

lower motor neurons

34

pinprick and temperature test which spinal tract

spinothalamic

35

proprioception, 2 proint tactile discrimination and vibration test what spinal tract

posterior columns

36

light touch tests what spinal trats

spinothalamic and posterior columns

37

where do you place a tuning fork to test vibratory sensation

IPJ
malleoli

38

pt stands with feet together in front of examiner and closes eyes with arms abducted to 90 degrees

romberg test

39

ability to identify shapes of objects and recognizing objects placed in the hand

stereognosis

40

ability to identify numbers written on the palm

graphesthesia

41

ability to distinguish being touched by one or two points

two point discriminatino

42

ability to feel two locations being touched simultatinously

double simultanous stimulation

43

biceps reflex

C5-C6

44

bracioradialis reflex

C5. C6

45

Triceps reflex

C6 C7

46

patellar reflex

L2-L4

47

achilles reflex

S1

48

critical sign of UMN dysfunction
abnormal when sole of foot is scratched form heel to toes and across transverse arch makes great toe extend

babinski sign

49

UMN sign -abnormal pattern of neuromuscular activity characterized by rapid alteranting, involuntary contractions and relxation fo skeletal muscle

clonus

50

abdominal reflex tests

T10-t12

51

cremasteric reflex tests

L1, L2

52

anal wink reflex tests

S2-S4

53

nystagmus, vertigo, vomiting, postural impairment, disequilibrium

vestibular

54

dysmetria, dysdiachokinesia, ataxia, intention tremor, slurred speech, asthenia

cerebellar

55

spastic paralysis/paresis, hyperreflexia, hypertonia, babinski

pyramidal

56

dyskinesia, resting tremor

extrapyramidal

57

hemi-dysasthesia, hemiplegia, hemiparesis, apraxia, aphasia, congitive/behavioral

cortical

58

special cerebellar testing

finger to noes
heel to shin
rapid alternating movements

59

anteroflexed posture, festinating (difficult to start or stop)
small steps
en bloc turns
decfreased arm swings

parkinsonian gait

60

feet crossing over with toes dragged - cerebral palsy or MS

scissoring

61

high steppage, broad based - seen with posterior column damage and peripheral neuropathy

sensory ataxia

62

small steps, feet do not leave ground, seen in frontal lobe processes and hydrocephalus

magnetic