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Flashcards in BASIC PATHO Deck (54):
1

Nucleus with scalloped contour

Purkinje and pyramidal
cells in cortical layer V

2

Pigments in the cytoplasm

lipofuscin and
melanin

3

Pigmented (neuromelanin) neurons

-Substantia nigra (midbrain)
– Locus ceruleus (pons)
-Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve
(medulla)

4

– Increases with age
– Intracytoplasmic
– Light yellow-brown color on routine hematoxylin
and eosin staining

Lipofuscin

5

– Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions
– May be multiple within one nucleus
– Prominently seen in pigmented neurons
– Increase with age

Marinesco bodies

6

shrunken cell
body with dark nucleus, indistinguishable nucleolus,
and eosinophilic cytoplasm

Central chromatolysis

7

encrusted with calcium and/or iron, may be seen
in old infarcts

Ferruginization of neurons (fossilized neurons)

8

focal dilation of axon with
neurofilaments and organelles, reaction to axon injury

Axonal spheroid

9

Largest of glial cells
Oblong, vesicular nucleus without nucleolus
Cytoplasm highlighted with glial fibrillary acidic
protein (GFAP) antibody—stains intermediate
glial filaments
Processes often invest vessels, contribute to bloodbrain
barrier
Processes also extend to pial surface

Astrocytes

10

– ___________ of periventricular region
and cerebellum
– ____________ of cerebellum

Pilocytic astrocytes

Bergmann astrocytes

11

– Laminated, basophilic polyglucosan bodies
– Associated with astrocytic foot processes
– Increase with age
– Frequently seen in subpial regions

Corpora amylacea

12

Reactive astrocytes

(gemistocytes)

13

– Cytoplasmic inclusion
– Brightly eosinophilic, elongated deposits
– Observed in a number of entities including
gliosis, Alexander’s disease, pilocytic astrocytoma

Rosenthal fiber

14

Reactive astrocytes with increased cytoplasm
and fragmented nuclear material (giving the
impression of multiple micronuclei)
– Seen in demyelinative processes

Creutzfeldt astrocyte

15

– Large cells often with multiple nuclei or irregularly
lobulated nuclei
– Seen in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Alzheimer type I astrocyte

16

Prominently seen in basal ganglia in hepatic
diseases that produce elevated ammonia levels

Alzheimer type II astrocyte

17

intranuclear, eosinophilic viral
inclusion; displaces the nucleolus (e.g.,
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis–measles;
herpes/cytomegalovirus

Cowdry A—

18

often multiple and smaller than
Cowdry A inclusions, generally do not displace
the nucleolus (e.g., polio)

Cowdry B—

19

Most numerous cells in the CNS
Small cells with no cytoplasmic staining with
hematoxylin and eosin, round nucleus without
prominent nucleolus
Thinner and fewer cell processes than astrocytes
Tend to arrange themselves around neurons
(neuronal satellitosis)

Oligodendrocytes

20

Only weak immunostaining with ______ positive
staining with ________ protein antibody
May contain intranuclear inclusions in progressive
multifocal leukoencephalopathy–papovavirus

GFAP

S100

21

Epithelioid cells that line ventricular walls and
central canal of the spinal cord
Columnar/cuboidal cells with cilia, oval hyperchromatic
nuclei
Cilia attached to cell body by blepharoplast

Ependyma

22

specialized ependymal cells of the third
ventricle with basal processes extending between
astrocytic processes to form an end-foot on blood
vessels

Tanycytes

23

MICROGLIA

May proliferate in a diffuse pattern _____
or nodular pattern____________—commonly
seen with viral encephalitis

(microgliosis)


(microglial nodule)

24

Seen principally in the arachnoid membrane
Epithelioid to slightly spindled cells in small clusters,
oval nuclei with dispersed chromatin and
eosinophilic cytoplasm
Associated with psammoma body formation (laminated
calcifications)

Arachnoid cap cells or meningothelial cells

25

Dorsal leptomeninges of cord may contain white
firm plaques__________—laminated
dense hyalinized fibrous tissue

(arachnoiditis ossificans)

26

Layers
• I. _________—few small neurons, glia, outermost
layer
• II. ________—small neurons with
short axons
• III. _______—medium-size and large
neurons
• IV. Internal granular—small stellate neurons
• V. Inner pyramidal—medium-size neurons,
_____
• VI. Polymorphic layer—innermost layer

Molecular


External granular

Outer pyramidal


Betz cells

27

Layers of the Cerebellum

• __________—outermost layer
• __________—single layer of neurons
• __________—hypercellular, small
cells

Molecular layer

Purkinje cell layer

Granular cell layer

28

Consists of dentate gyrus, Ammon’s horn, and
subiculum

Hippocampus

29

most sensitive area of
brain to anoxic damage

CA1 Sommer’s sector

30

neuronal cells with rounded
nuclei, stippled chromatin, and a moderate
amount of pale eosinophlic cytoplasm with short
processes.

Pineocytes

31

calcifications, present after
puberty

Corpora arenacea—

32

Parts of the pituitary gland

Adenohypophysis (anterior)- nests of epithelioid
cells separated by delicate fibrovascular
septae
Pars intermedia—
Neurohypophysis (posterior- spindled cells
loosely arranged; contains Herring bodies

33

(eosinophilic axonal dilations containing vasopressin
and oxytocin

Herring bodies

34

ARTIFACTS

_______-from craniotomy or skull removal
_______-neuronal shrinkage, perinuclear
halos in oligodendrocytes
_______-prolonged postmortem
period resulting from gas producing bacterial overgrowth
________-prolonged postmortem period
_______—may give impression of
hypercellular cortex

1. Bone dust

2. Delayed fixation

3. Swiss cheese brain

4. Cerebellar granular cell conglutination

5. Tangential sectioning

35


Nuclei multiple, peripherally arranged

skeletal muscle cell
At muscle–tendon junction, fibers get smaller and
often contain internalized nuclei

36

Central nuclei abnormal if seen in >3–5% of
myofibers. Increased central nuclei in _________

myotonic dystrophy,
myotubular myopathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth
diseas

37

Types of muscle fiber atrophy

_______________—more likely
myopathic except in denervation atrophy in
infants (e.g., Werdnig-Hoffmann disease)
______________—ischemia related, characteristic
of dermatomyositis
_______________—spinal muscular atrophy,
hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies,
vasculitis

1. Rounded fiber atrophy




2. Perifascicular atrophy

3. Fascicular atrophy

38

__________—myotonic dystrophy, congenital
myopathies, spinocerebellar degeneration
_________—disuse, steroids (type IIB),
collagen vascular disease, myasthenia gravis,
cachexia, paraneoplastic neuromyopathy

– Type I atrophy

– Type II atrophy

39

Often associated with central nuclei and split
fibers
– Scattered hypertrophic fibers adjacent to
atrophy—compensatory

Hypertrophy

40

Type I fibers—_________ low glycolytic
activity
Type II fibers—_______ high glycolytic
activity

high oxidative,

low oxidative,

41

_____segment is the functional contractile
unit of muscle formed by the orderly arrangement
of interdigitating myofilaments, runs from Z band
to Z band

Sarcomere

42

Dark central __________band consisting of
mostly thick myosin filaments
_________ is crossed at midpoint by a dark narrow
transverse M line consisting of cross-bridges,
which link adjacent, myosin filaments together

________ is surrounded by paler H band,
which varies in width as the sarcomeric length
changes

_______ band situated on either side
of the A band, consisting mostly of thin actin
filaments in combination with troponin and
tropomyosin proteins
_______ divides I band at midpoint and marks
the longitudinal boundary of each sarcomere,
made of -actinin material

A (anisotropic)

A band


M band



Pale I (isotropic)




– Z band

43

Structures of the sarcoplasm

1. __________—type I > type II
2. _________—network of tubules continuous with the muscle cell plasma membrane, allows for the rapid passage of depolarization into the interior of the
myofiber

3. ___________a series of flattened
sacs between and around myofbrils

1. Mitochondria


2. – T system (transverse tubular system)




3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum

44

Collections of small intrafusal fibers
Consists of two types of intrafusal fibers: nuclear
bag fibers and nuclear chain fibers

Muscle spindle

45

Encapsulated sensory nerve terminal
Located at junction of muscle with tendon or
aponeurosis
Functions to detect changes in muscle tension and
inhibit strong muscle contractions

GTO

46

__________—hexomeric protein; thick filaments of A band
__________—thin filaments


___________—calcium-binding complex, releases
inhibitory effect of tropomyosin

___________—sterically inhibits actin–myosin
interaction

___________—anchors thin filaments, Z-band material


_____________—intermediate filaments,
links Z bands of adjacent myofibrils together


______________—maintains position of thick
filaments between Z bands

______________—resynthesis of ATP


______________—regulates length of thin filaments


________________—transmembrane protein which
links intracellular cytoskeleton with extracellular
matrix

________________—cytoskeletal protein which links
actin with dystroglycans

Myosin

Actin


Troponin


Tropomyosin


Actinin


Desmin and vimentin



Titin (connectin)


Creatinine kinase


Nebulin


Dystroglycan



Dystrophin

47

___________also present in endoneurium, increase in
number with axonal degeneration and neurofibroma

Mast cells

48

TYPES OF NERVE FIBER LAYERS

Class A fibers
– ____________
– 1–20 m diameter; conduction velocity 12–
100 m/sec


Class B fibers
– ________________________
– Up to 3 m in diameter; conduction velocity
3–15 m/sec


Class C fibers
___________________
– Small fibers (0.2–1.5 m diameter); conduction
velocity 0.3–1.6 m/sec

Myelinated








Myelinated preganglionic autonomic fibers




– Unmyelinated

49

_________Can be highlighted with certain stains (Luxol
fast blue, Loyez, osmium, periodic acid–Schiff,
Masson trichrome

MYELIN

50

_____________
associated with Schwann cells and myelination
process

Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG)—

51

___________—lamellated structures,
cytoplasm accumulates along with lipofuscin
with increasing age

Pi granules of Reich

52

_____________—spherical bodies in
Schwann cell cytoplasm

Corpuscles of Erzholz

53

Cleft splits the cytoplasmic membranes and
serves as a route of passage for substances from
the outer cytoplasmic layer through the myelin
sheath to the inner cytoplasm

Schmidt-Lanterman clefts

54

Axolemma separated from adjacent Schwann cell
by ________

periaxonal space of Klebs