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Flashcards in Basic principles of pharm Deck (53):
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1. What is pharmacology?

a. Study of substances that interact with living systems

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2. What is toxicology?

a. Deals with the undesirable effects of chemicals on living systems

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3. What is pharmacotherapeutics?

a. Study of the therapeutic uses and effects of drugs

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4. What is pharmacokinetics?

a. What the body does to the drug
i. Describes absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs

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5. What is pharmacodynamics?

a. What the drug does to the body
i. Study of the relationship between the concentration of a drug and the response in a patient

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6. What form of the drug has the effect on the body?

a. Free drug

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7. What is bioavailability?

a. The fraction of the administered dose that reaches the systemic circulation

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8. What is the bioavailability for an IV drug?

a. 100%

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11. what changes in absorption are seen in elderly?

i. Decrease in stomach acid
ii. Decrease in total body water

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11. How does gastric pH change in peds?

a. Gastric pH ranges from 6-8 at birth, declines to 1-3 in 24 hours

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12. How are most drugs absorbed in geriatrics?

a. Passive diffusion

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13. How are nutrients absorbed in geriatrics?

a. Active transport

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14. What results in an increased bioavailability in geriatrics?

a. Decreased first-pass effect

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15. What is the first pass effect?

a. The fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall

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16. If a drug is protein-bound, can it exert an effect?

a. No

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17. Warfarin is ___% protein-bound

a. 98%

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18. What is the volume of distribution?

a. The amount of drug in the body related to the serum concentration in the body

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19. Binding of drugs to plasma proteins is ____ in newborn infants

a. Decreased

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20. When dosing a fat-soluble drug to a pregnant woman, you should expect to dose (more or less)?

a. More - they have more body fat so the drug will go into the fat before exerting its effect

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21. What are receptors?

a. Specific molecules in a biologic system with which drugs interact to produce changes in the function of the system?

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22. What is an agonist drug?

a. A drug that binds to and activate the receptor in some fashion, which directly or indirectly brings about the effect

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23. What is a partial agonist?

a. binds to its receptor but produces a smaller effect at full dosage than a full agonist

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24. What is an antagonist?

a. drugs, by binding to a receptor, compete with and prevent binding by other molecules

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25. What is an allosteric drug?

a. drugs bind to the same receptor molecule but do not prevent binding of the agonist
i. may enhance or inhibit the action of the agonist molecule
ii. not overcome by increasing the dose of agonist

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26. What is an irreversible antagonist?

a. an antagonist that cannot be overcome by increasing the agonist

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27. what is a competitive inhibitor?

b. Compete for the same receptor, whoever has the greatest concentration can take over and push the other off the receptor

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28. The most important organ for drug metabolism is the ____

a. Liver

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29. What is a Phase 1 Reaction?

a. Converts the parent drug to a more polar (water-soluble) reactive product by inserting a polar functional group

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30. What is a Phase II reaction?

a. Increases water solubility by conjugation of the drug with a polar glucuronate, acetate, or sulfate

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31. What is a P-glycoprotein, MDR-1?

a. ATP-dependent transport molecule that can force-ably expel drug into extracellular space

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32. What is Cytochrome P450?

a group of enzymes that are responsible for most drug metabolism oxidation reactions. (Phase I)

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33. What is a substrate?

drug which is metabolized by one of the CYP450 enzymes

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34. What is an inducer?

drug which can increase the activity of a CYP450 enzyme - which breaks down the drug

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35. What is an inhibitor?

drug which can decrease the activity of a CYP450 enzyme – so the drug increases

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36. the opposite of an inducer drug is an _____

a. inhibitor drug

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38. What drugs can become toxic when taken with a P-gp inhibitor?

a. digoxin, cyclosporine, and saquinavir.

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39. Drug metabolism is substantially ____ in infants than in older children and adults

a. Slower

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40. What pathway is underdeveloped in infants?

a. Glucuronidation

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41. Hepatic perfusion ____ in pregnancy

a. Increases

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42. What is the “steady state”?

a. The condition in which the average total amount of drug in the body does not change over multiple dosing cycles

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43. How many half-lives of a drug does it take to reach steady state?

a. 4-5

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44. How long does it take a drug at steady state to 99+% disappear from the body?

a. an additional 4-5 half lives

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46. What does it mean if a drug is linear?

a. If you double the dose, the amount in the body goes up twice (it will change proportionally)

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47. What does it mean if a drug is not linear?

a. A small dose can make a huge difference in the amount of drug in the body

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48. What is the most important pharmacokinetic parameter?

a. Clearance

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49. Clearance is determined by what?

a. Blood flow to the organ that metabolizes or eliminates the drug

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50. What is first order elimination?

a. The time to remove a drug is always a % based on half lives

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51. What is zero order elimination?

a. The same amount is eliminated at a constant rate

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52. The primary organ involved in the elimination of drugs is the ____

a. Kidney

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55. Maternal plasma vol, CO, and GFR increase by ____% in pregnancy

a. 30-50%

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56. What is efficacy?

a. The max effect a drug can produce

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57. What is potency?

a. How much drug do I need to give to get the max effect

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58. What factors influence the relationship between prescribed dosage and drug effects when related to the patient?

a. Medication errors and patient compliance