Introduction and absorption Flashcards Preview

BMSC1212 Introduction to pharmacology > Introduction and absorption > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction and absorption Deck (36):
1

What is pharmacology?

The science-orientated study of drug action

2

What is the definition of a drug?

A chemical entity of known structure, other than a nutrient/dietary supplement, which causes a biological effect in a living orgainism

3

What is the definition of a medicine?

A preparation of one or more drug, alongside other substances (stabilisers, solvents, etc.) which is used therapeutically to treat, cure, prevent or diagnose disease,

4

Give three classifications of drugs

1. Molecular structure
2. Mode of action
3. Therapeutic use

5

Give an example of a molecular structure name

Catecholamine

6

Give an example of a mode of action name

Beta-blockers

7

Give an example of a therapeutic use name

Antihypertensives

8

Give three ways of naming drugs?

1. chemical name
2. generic name
3. proprietary name

9

What is the difference between the generic name and the proprietary name for a drug?

The generic name always starts with a lowercase letter, a proprietary name is the trade name and always starts with a capital letter.

10

What is toxicology?

The study of adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms

11

What is pharmacy?

Patient-orientated health profession, licenced dispensing medicine, patient monitoring, medicine composition/manufacture.

12

What are the two main branches of pharmacology?

1. Pharmacodynamics
2.Pharmacokinetics

13

What is the difference between pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics?

Pharmacodynamics is what does a drug do to the body while pharmacokinetics is what does the body do to the drug?

14

What does ADME stand for?

Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism
Excretion

15

What does delivery of the drug include?

Absorption and distribution

16

What does drug elimination include?

Metabolism and excretion of the drug

17

What does ADME determine?

The concentration of the drug at the target site which effects the onset, intensity and duration of the drug's action

18

What are xenobiotics?

Drugs, drug metabolites and environmental compounds such as pollutants that are not produced by the body and are excreted

19

What does distribution entail?

getting the drug from systemic circulation and into the tissues

20

When does pharmacodynamics start?

When the drug reaches the site of action

21

Where can the drug go once it is in circulation?

1. To be metabolised then excreted
2. Directly excreted
3. Into tissues

22

What does absorption entail?

The movement of the drug from the site of administration to the systematic circulation (not to the site of action)

23

What does ROA stand for?

Route of administration

24

Give the names for two groups of drug administration

1. Enteral (via GI tract)
2. Parenteral

25

Give 3 examples of enteral administration

1. Oral
2. Sublingual
3. Rectal

26

Give 7 examples of parenteral administration

1. I.V
2. Subcutaneous
3. Intra muscular (I.M.)
4. Inhalation
5. Intranasal
6. Tropical
7. Transdermal

27

What is different about enteral administration?

Drugs must cross a tight barrier composed of the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract

28

What is the only route of administration which has 100% bioavailability?

I.V.

29

What is the rate-limiting step in taking oral drugs?

The dissolution rate

30

Where are most oral drugs absorbed?

Via the small intestine so large quantities can be absorbed due to the large SA and good blood supply.

31

What is the draw back of using oral drugs?

It is the most complicated route for a drug to take

32

What 4 things must an oral drug do before it reaches the site of action?

1. Survive gastric acid
2. Survive digestive enzymes
3. Co-exist with or avoid food
4. Cope with gut bacteria

33

Give an example of a drug hydrolysed by gastric acid

Benzylpenicillin (usually given via I.V.)

34

Give a solution for oral drugs which can be hydrolysed by gastric acid

Enteric coat for protection

35

Give an example of a drug which would not be absorbed in the presence of food

tetracycline antibiotics (bind to Ca+, become insoluble and are not absorbed)

36

Give an example of a drug whose activity is altered by the presence of certain bacterial metabolites

Simvastatin (anti-hypolipidemic drug), sulphasalazine is cleaved into active anti-inflammatory components 5-ASA and sulphapyridine by colonic bacteria