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Cognition in infants and children > Basic processes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic processes Deck (17)
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1

What are basic processes?

Frequently used rapid memory activities
Building blocks of cognition
Large, direct contributors to memory development

2

Name basic processes (8)

Association
Recognition
Recall (and imitation)
Generalisation
Inhibition
Processing capacity
Processing speed
Insight

3

What is association?

Process of associating stimulus and response

4

Association is present from what age?
How do we know?

Birth
Newborns quickly learned to turn to the left for sweet solution when tone sounded or right when buzzer sounded; associated tone/buzzer and sweet solution (Siqueland and Lipsitt, 1966)

5

What are the two types of recognition?

Implicit - memories cannot be verbally described or visualised as mental image; may be unconscious
Explicit - memories can be verbally described or visualised as mental image; conscious

6

Implicit memories form from what age?
What brain areas are involved?

Birth
Areas involved in implicit processing such as striatum and cerebellum

7

Explicit memories form from what age?
What brain areas are involved?

6-8mo
Areas involved in explicity processing such as PFC and amygdala

8

Explicit recognition is accurate from what age?

4yo - accurately recognised 100% of pictures (Brown and Scott, 1971)

9

How can implicit recognition be measured?

Galvanic skin response, preferential looking, habituation paradigms, sucking, facial expressions, eye-tracking

10

What is insight?

Abrupt, rapid learning

11

What is generalisation?

Association generalises to other similar stimuli

12

Integration of experiences occuring close together in time can be explained by the time window concept. What is this?

There is a certain period during which children integrate info and strengthen initial memories. After this period, similar experiences are stored separately and aren't integrated.

13

What is inhibition?

The process of preventing irrelevant ideas intruding and stopping oneself doing pre-learning action.

14

What brain areas are important for inhibition?
How do we know?

Frontal lobe areas.
Between 6 and 12mo, infants show the ability to correctly perform A-not-B task which requires inhibition and show increased frontal lobe activity while doing so (Bell and Fox, 1992)

15

Name two tasks demonstrating inhibition.

Piaget's A-not-B task (must inhibit tendency to reach where object was previously hidden in location A and reach for where it is now in location B)
Marshmallow test (one marshmallow in front of child, left alone in room, can eat now (instant gratification, smaller reward) or wait and get another one (delayed gratification, bigger reward))

16

What is processing capacity?
How does this change with age?
5yo have a processing capacity of what?
8yo have a processing capacity of what?
Adults have a processing capacity of what?

The amount of info we can actively process at one time; this increase with age
5yo recall 3-4 items
8yo recall 5-6 items
Adults recall 7 items

17

How does processing speed change with age?
This is due to what?

Increases most rapidly at young age; this increase continues into adolescence but is slower
Due to increased speed (more physically mature children have higher processing speed)