Basic Structure of Muscle, Cartilage & Bone Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Structure of Muscle, Cartilage & Bone Deck (9):

Describe the organisation of muscle cells in to whole muscles

Individual muscle cells are covered by endomysium, and arranged in to fascicles
Fascicles are covered with perimysium
Fascicles aggregate to form whole muscle, which is covered by epimysium


What is the structure of skeletal muscle?

Peripheral nuclei in rows
Lots of mitochondria to produce ATP

Can repair by satellite cells


What is the structure of smooth muscle?

Spindle shaped cells with a central nucleus
Able to repair by mitosis

Can have modified smooth muscle cells e.g. Myoepithelial or myofibroblast


What is the structure of cardiac muscle?

Centrally positioned nuclei
Branching fibres
Highly vascularised
Intercalated discs - instead of Z bands
T-tubules and terminal cisternae

Unable to repair


Describe the structure of the filaments in striated muscle

Z bands connect to actin filaments
M band connect to myosin
Actin and myosin cross over at the A band (dArk in appearance)
Actin alone in the I band (lIght in appearance)
Myosin alone in the H band (ligHt in appearance)

Myosin heads, actin fibres surround by tropomysin with troponin


What is meant by cartilage?

An avascular tissue of mesenchymal origin that consists of an extensive extracellular matrix, containing chondrocytes, and extracellular fibres

Three different types: hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage


What are the key features of hyaline cartilage?

Surrounding perichondrium
Avascular-> relies on diffusion to obtain nutrients

Type 2 Collagen

Foetal skeleton
End of long bones
Anterior end of the ribs
Respiratory tract
Firm and flexible support to allow the movement of tissues


What are the key features of fibrocartilage?

No perichondrium
Type 1 Collagen

Pubic symphysis
Intervertebral discs
Portions of the tendons

Very strong and resistant to stretching and compression


What are the key features of elastic cartilage?

Surrounding perichondrium
Matrix contains Type 2 collagen and many elastic fibres

Extra flexibility, provides support and maintains the shape of structures
Auditory tubesPinna (external ear)Epiglottis