Flashcards in Basics of Chemistry & Nutrition Deck (68):
Name some organic substances that you wouldn't have thought would be considered organic substances.
Gasoline, plastics, synthetic fabrics, pesticides, fertilizers
The simplest for of chemical matter
How do we identify elements
by a letter symbol
The smallest particle of an element
This is formed when two are more atoms are chemically joined together
The 3 states of matter
solid, liquid, gas
What is it called when a substance changes its' state but not it's chemical composition (ex: water to ice)
a physical change
What is it called when a substance changes its' chemical composition making a new substance with properties different from the original (ex:wood to ash)
What is the most abundant element found on earth?
What is the composition of air
1 part oxygen, 4 parts nitrogen and a little carbon dioxide
What is the most commonly used ingredient in cosmetics
What is the pH scale range?
What happens during ionization?
an atom or molecule splits creating a pair of ions with opposite charges
What color is acid on litmus paper
What color is a base on litmus paper
What is the natural pH of skin?
What does an oxidizing agent do?
Gives/Looses oxygen to another substance (oxidizes another substance)
What does a reduction agent do?
Takes from or gains oxygen from another substance (reduces another substance)
The substance that is being disolved is called....
The substance that disolves another substance is called
Liquids that are mutually soluble are called? Ex: water and alcohol
liquids that are not mutually soluble are called? Ex: water and oil
What is a slightly miscible mixture called?
What keeps the substances in an emulsion from separating?
With proper storage, how long should an emulsion remain stable (or be kept from separating)
approximately 3 years
What do surfactants do?
emulsify oil and water
Give some examples of oil in water emulsions
moisturizing lotions, cleansing lotions, milky liquids
Give examples of water in oil emulsions
cleansing creams, cold creams, night creams, massage creams, suntan lotions (contain more oil than water)
What are some factors that determine your nutritional needs?
age, sex, weight, physical activity, body type
What is a way to prevent from getting too many calories?
choose foods high in nutrients but low in calories
When do a woman's nutritional needs increase?
pregnancy and lactation
What is an example of a natural monosaccharide
fructose (fruit sugar)
What are proteins?
chains of amino acids
The proteins of plants and animals are made form how many "common" amino acids?
What are necessary for a balanced diet?
Vitamins and minerals
What is the recommended intake of protein, fats, and carbohydrates?
20% protein, 26% fat, 54% carbohydrates
What are some examples of complete proteins that should be limited in the diet?
meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products
What are the main dietary sources of protein?
animal meats, fish, eggs, dairy, nuts, grains, beans
What is the most basic unit of a carbohydrate
the glucose molecule also known as a monosaccharide
What is another name for fiber
What are the two categories of fiber
soluble and insoluble
What will happen to your blood sugar without adequate carbohydrates?
hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
What helps balance glucose levels?
eating good or complex carbohydrates (whole grains)
What is an essential component of good health that many people associate with obesity?
How does the body manufacture fats when needed?
from carbohydrates and proteins
Which can lead to health problems if too much is consumed...Omega 3 or Omega 6?
Which does the typical american diet have more of.....Omega 3 or Omega 6?
What system in the body can absorb phospholipids and triglycerides?
the lymph system
How many calories in fat, protein, carbs.
fat-9 calories, protein-4 calories, carb-4calories
What has proven to show great benefits to the skin of not only consumed internally but applied externally as well?
vitamins and minerals
Name the fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, and K
Name the water soluble vitamins
All the B vitamins and Vitamin C
What are provitamins?
precursory substances that contain a vitamin which will convert to the actual vitamin once in the body
Name an example of a provitamin and what it converts to in the body
Beta-carotene converts to Vitamin A
What is known as the sunshine vitamin?
What are some dietary sources of Vitamin D?
fortified milk, fish oils, egg yolks, and butter
What is another name for Vitamin E?
What is a great benefit to the body from vitamin E?
It helps heal damage to tissues (internally and externally)
How many B vitamins are there?
What types of foods contain B6?
meats, soybeans, fish, walnuts, bananas, potatoes, prunes, avocados
Which B vitamin will decrease with age due to decreased absorption?
Vitamin b12 (cobalamine)
What is another name for Vitamin C?
What mineral aids in protein synthesis and collagen formation?
What mineral is needed for healthy teeth and bones?
What are some functions of potassium?
energy, water balance, muscular movement, blood pressure regulation, heart and nervous system function
What in a diet can trigger acne?
What is the formula for calculating how much water you should have daily?
your body weight divided by 2 then divided by 8