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Flashcards in Basics of Chemistry & Nutrition Deck (68):
1

Name some organic substances that you wouldn't have thought would be considered organic substances.

Gasoline, plastics, synthetic fabrics, pesticides, fertilizers

2

The simplest for of chemical matter

an element

3

How do we identify elements

by a letter symbol

4

The smallest particle of an element

Atom

5

This is formed when two are more atoms are chemically joined together

Molecule

6

The 3 states of matter

solid, liquid, gas

7

What is it called when a substance changes its' state but not it's chemical composition (ex: water to ice)

a physical change

8

What is it called when a substance changes its' chemical composition making a new substance with properties different from the original (ex:wood to ash)

chemical change

9

What is the most abundant element found on earth?

oxygen

10

What is the composition of air

1 part oxygen, 4 parts nitrogen and a little carbon dioxide

11

What is the most commonly used ingredient in cosmetics

water

12

What is the pH scale range?

0-14

13

What happens during ionization?

an atom or molecule splits creating a pair of ions with opposite charges

14

What color is acid on litmus paper

red

15

What color is a base on litmus paper

blue

16

What is the natural pH of skin?

5.5-slightly acidid

17

What does an oxidizing agent do?

Gives/Looses oxygen to another substance (oxidizes another substance)

18

What does a reduction agent do?

Takes from or gains oxygen from another substance (reduces another substance)

19

The substance that is being disolved is called....

solute

20

The substance that disolves another substance is called

solvent

21

Liquids that are mutually soluble are called? Ex: water and alcohol

miscible

22

liquids that are not mutually soluble are called? Ex: water and oil

immiscible

23

What is a slightly miscible mixture called?

suspension

24

What keeps the substances in an emulsion from separating?

an emulsifier

25

With proper storage, how long should an emulsion remain stable (or be kept from separating)

approximately 3 years

26

What do surfactants do?

emulsify oil and water

27

Give some examples of oil in water emulsions

moisturizing lotions, cleansing lotions, milky liquids

28

Give examples of water in oil emulsions

cleansing creams, cold creams, night creams, massage creams, suntan lotions (contain more oil than water)

29

What are some factors that determine your nutritional needs?

age, sex, weight, physical activity, body type

30

What is a way to prevent from getting too many calories?

choose foods high in nutrients but low in calories

31

When do a woman's nutritional needs increase?

pregnancy and lactation

32

What is an example of a natural monosaccharide

fructose (fruit sugar)

33

What are proteins?

chains of amino acids

34

The proteins of plants and animals are made form how many "common" amino acids?

20

35

What are necessary for a balanced diet?

Vitamins and minerals

36

What is the recommended intake of protein, fats, and carbohydrates?

20% protein, 26% fat, 54% carbohydrates

37

What are some examples of complete proteins that should be limited in the diet?

meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products

38

What are the main dietary sources of protein?

animal meats, fish, eggs, dairy, nuts, grains, beans

39

What is the most basic unit of a carbohydrate

the glucose molecule also known as a monosaccharide

40

What is another name for fiber

roughage

41

What are the two categories of fiber

soluble and insoluble

42

What will happen to your blood sugar without adequate carbohydrates?

hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)

43

What helps balance glucose levels?

eating good or complex carbohydrates (whole grains)

44

What is an essential component of good health that many people associate with obesity?

Fats

45

How does the body manufacture fats when needed?

from carbohydrates and proteins

46

Which can lead to health problems if too much is consumed...Omega 3 or Omega 6?

Omega 6

47

Which does the typical american diet have more of.....Omega 3 or Omega 6?

Omega 6

48

What system in the body can absorb phospholipids and triglycerides?

the lymph system

49

How many calories in fat, protein, carbs.

fat-9 calories, protein-4 calories, carb-4calories

50

What has proven to show great benefits to the skin of not only consumed internally but applied externally as well?

vitamins and minerals

51

Name the fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, and K

52

Name the water soluble vitamins

All the B vitamins and Vitamin C

53

What are provitamins?

precursory substances that contain a vitamin which will convert to the actual vitamin once in the body

54

Name an example of a provitamin and what it converts to in the body

Beta-carotene converts to Vitamin A

55

What is known as the sunshine vitamin?

Vitamins D

56

What are some dietary sources of Vitamin D?

fortified milk, fish oils, egg yolks, and butter

57

What is another name for Vitamin E?

tocopherol

58

What is a great benefit to the body from vitamin E?

It helps heal damage to tissues (internally and externally)

59

How many B vitamins are there?

8

60

What types of foods contain B6?

meats, soybeans, fish, walnuts, bananas, potatoes, prunes, avocados

61

Which B vitamin will decrease with age due to decreased absorption?

Vitamin b12 (cobalamine)

62

What is another name for Vitamin C?

ascorbic acid

63

What mineral aids in protein synthesis and collagen formation?

Zinc

64

What mineral is needed for healthy teeth and bones?

fluoride

65

What are some functions of potassium?

energy, water balance, muscular movement, blood pressure regulation, heart and nervous system function

66

What in a diet can trigger acne?

Iodine

67

What is the formula for calculating how much water you should have daily?

your body weight divided by 2 then divided by 8

68

How can you practice wellness inside and out?

See bullet points pages 221-222