BB Lec - RBC Biology and Preservation Flashcards Preview

► Med Misc 05 > BB Lec - RBC Biology and Preservation > Flashcards

Flashcards in BB Lec - RBC Biology and Preservation Deck (68):
1

two important RBC characteristics:

deformability and permeability

2

is the network of proteins that contributes shape, strength, and function to a cell membrane.

cytoskeleton

3

gives RBC their characteristic biconcave shape

cytoskeleton

4

purpose of biconcave shape of RBCs

to allow gas exchange while carrying great quantities of oxygen

5

gives a red cell flexibility
strengthens the cell membrane,
facilitates its efficient travel through capillaries

Cytoskeleton

6

CAUSES OF SPHEROCYTOSIS (4)

defects in:
spectrin
spectrin and ankyrin
anion exchanger
palidin

7

defect in proteins that provides vertical support


HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS

8

defect in proteins that provide horizontal support

HEREDITARY ELLIPTOCYTOSIS:

9

causes of loss of deformability (2)

The loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (energy) levels [leads to a decrease in the phosphorylation of spectrin and, in turn, a loss of membrane deformability]

An accumulation or increase in deposition of membrane calcium also results, [causing an increase in membrane rigidity and loss of pliability ]

10

loss of ATP leads to ___

decrease in the phosphorylation of spectrin

11

decrease in the phosphorylation of spectrin leads to

loss of membrane deformability

12

manifestations of loss of membrane deformability [3]

spherocytes
bite cells
shortened lifespan

13

cells with a reduced surface-to-volume ratio and in which the

“spherocytes”

14

what cells
removal of a portion of membrane has left a permanent indentation in the remaining cell membrane

“bite cells"

15

The RBC membrane is freely permeable to

water and anions

16

importance of permeability of rbc membrane (2)

prevent colloid hemolysis
control the volume of the RBC

17

responsible for 90% of ATP generation



EMP

18

processes/reactions in stage 1 emp

phosphorylation, isomerization, diphosphorylation

19

end product of emp

end product: 3GP

20

3rd stage of emp, product:

pyruvate

21

Produces (reduced) NADPH and reduced glutathione

HMP

22

prevents iron of Hgb from being oxidized (maintains ferrous state)

Methemoglobin reductase pathway

23

2,3 DPG generation

RLP

24

What form
B chains are closer together

Relaxed form

25

What form
B chains are farther

Tensed form

26

Is the effect pH has on HGB-oxygen affinity

HGB-DISSOCIATION CURVE

27

Increase pH is a shift to ?? (inc or dec HGB affinity for O2)

left
increased HGB affinity for O2

28

example of shift to left

hyperventilation

29

Decrease pH --> shift to ??( increased or decreased HGB affinity for O2)

right
decreased HGB affinity for O2

30

example of shift to right

EXERCISE
RENAL FAILURE

31


is a measure of in vivo RBC survival following transfusion




RBC viability

32

The FDA requires an average 24-hour post transfusion RBC survival of

more than 75%

33

biochemical changes due to loss of RBC viability

Storage lesion:

34

increases ADP levels, thereby driving glycolysis toward the synthesis of ATP

adenine

35

chelates Ca, prevents clotting




Citrate (sodium citratre/citric acid):

36

maintains pH during storage; necessary for maintenance of 2,3 DPG

Monobasic sodium phosphate

37

substrate for ATP production( cellular energy)

Dextrose

38

prod’n of ATP, extends shelf life from 21 days to 35 days

Adenine

39

These are preserving solutions that are added to the RBCs after removal of plasma with or without platelets

additive solutions

40

The additive solution is contained in a ___ and is added to the RBCs after most of the plasma has been expressed

satellite bag

41

The additive solution is contained in a satellite bag and is added to the RBCs after ___

most of the plasma has been expressed

42

Benefits of additives (3)

Extends the shelf life of RBCs (42 days)
Allows for the harvesting of more plasma and platelets from the unit
Produces an RBC concentrate of lower viscosity that is easier to infuse

43

(AS-1; Baxter Healthcare)


Adsol

44

(AS-3, Pall Corporation)

Nutricel

45

(AS-5, Terumo Corporation)

Optisol

46

ALL three additives have (3)

saline, adenine, and glucose.

47

AS-1 and AS-5 also contains ___ (protects against storage-related hemolysis)

mannitol

48

AS-3 contains __ and ___ (for the same purpose)

citrate and phosphates

49

purpose of mannitol, citrate and phosphates

protect against storage-related hemolysis

50

None of the additives solutions maintain ___ throughout the storage time

2.3 DPG

51

ALL (AS-1 to AS-5) of the additive solutions are approved for HOW MANY days of storage for packed RBCs

42

52

Used for autologous units & storage of rare blood types

RBC Freezing

53

RBC Freezing involves the addition of cryoprotective agent to RBCs that are how many days old

less than 6 days old

54

2 concentrations of glycerol

high conc-glycerol (40% w/v)
Most BB used high-conc. Glycerol
low conc. Glycerol (20% w/v)

55

commonly used as cryoprotective agent and is added to RBCs slowly with vigorous shaking to permeate the RBCs

glycerol

56

FDA licenses frozen RBCs to be stored up ?? years

10

57

Transfusion of frozen cells must be preceded by a ____ process

deglycerolization

58

what are the saline conc. in deglycerolization

12% saline, 1.6% saline, 0.2% dextrose in saline

59


has traditionally been used in the deglycerolizing process.

A commercially available cell-washing system

60

what must be monitored during deglycerolization

excessive hemolysis
osmolality

61

has been developed that allows the glycerolization and deglycerolization to be performed under closed system.

ACP 215 (Haemonetics)

62

Process by which ATP and 2,3 DPG levels are restored or enhanced by metabolic alterations

rbc rejuvenation

63

only FDA approved rejuvenation solution sold in the US

Rejuvesol:

64

rejuvenation solution currently approved for use with CPD, CPDA-1 and CPD/AS-1 RBCs

Rejuvesol:

65

composition of rejuvesol

Contains phosphate, inosine, pyruvate and adenine

66

temp and time for rejuvenation incubation

1 hr 37C

67

volume of rejuvenation solution

50 ml

68

Following rejuvenation, the RBCs can be washed to remove the rejuvenation solution and transfused within how many hours.

24

Decks in ► Med Misc 05 Class (295):