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Flashcards in before midterm (section later) Deck (43):
1

PCR

1. denaturation
2.prime annealing
3.dna synthesis
4.repeat

2

CSI Effect

use for forensic science techniques on television has led public, court, juries, and even police investigators to believe that forensic evidence will be found at every crime scene

3

Locus

specific region of DNA

4

wildlife dna applications

species identification
sex identification
individual identification
population assignment
parentage

5

sources of DNA at a crime scene

cigarettes
stamps
envelopes
drinks
blowing nose
blood
talking into phone

6

illegal animal trade

multibillion $ industry
tigers, ivory, rhinos

7

time of death tests

rigor mortis
algor mortis
livor mortis
blood coagulation

8

diploid

46 chromosomes

9

assumptions when using temperature growth model

1. didnt happen on a live host
2. poikilothermic
3. feed on body
4. linear relationship between temperature and growth
5. stage of development can be determined

10

forensic services (3 bs)

anthropology (bones)
entomology (bugs)
pathology (bodies)

11

special forensic science services

engineering
odontology
psychiatry

12

evidence submission process

1. seek consultation
2. package exhibits
3. complete submission form
4.deliver to CFS

13

CFS services

biology
firearms and tool marks
documents
toxicology
chemistry

14

labs in canada

RCMP
CFS
ontario provincial
quebec provincial

15

FBI lab

largest in world
quantico virginia
> 1000000 examinations/year

16

6 stages of decay

fresh
bloat
active
advanced
dry
remains

17

forensic entomology dna application

gut content
provenance
species identification

18

DNA analysis

collection
specimen storage
extraction
quantitation
genotyping
interpretation of results
database

19

exotic species

endangered
illegal trade of animal parts (CITES, WAPPRIITA)

20

expert evidence

must be relevant
necessary to assist the trier of fact
should not trigger exclusionary rules
must be given by a properly qualified expert

21

domestic animals

track spread of disease
abuse cases

22

CITES appendixes

appendix 1: rare, endangered, trade not permitted
appendix 2:not rare or endangered, monitored
appendix 3: not endangered, managed within national listing

23

WAPPRIITA

wild animal and plant protection and regulation of interprovincial and international trade act

24

CITES

the convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora

25

main influences on development of the scientific method

francis bacon, karl popper, thomas khun

26

scientific method, method

identify problem
hypothesis
predictions
collect data
interpretations

27

scientific method, definition

a process that uses strict guidelines to ensure careful and systematic collection, organization, and analyis or information
attempt to minimize the influence of bias or prejudice in experimenters

28

wildlife individual profiling issues

lack of database
no standardized loci
low genetic variation
development of species specific markers

29

native species

poaching
illegal movement of animals

30

locards exchange principle

when two objects come into contact with each other they transfer particles between them

31

probabilities

more combinations/variations means lower probability of two individuals having the same DNA

32

sex identification- chromosomes

mammals- x: female, y: male
birds- z: female, w: male

33

mtDNA

degraded samples
species identification

34

expert witness

an individual whom the court determines to have knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average lay person
must aid court, qualified, impartial

35

admissibility of evidence/technique

1. can be tested
2. peer review or publication
3. potential error rate
4.standards controlling operation
5. accepted in relevant scientific community

36

daubert

judges will act as gate keepers and determine the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence

37

frye

to be accepted as evidence at trial procedure or technique must be generally accepted

38

difficulties with wildlife samples

degradation
amount of sample
type of sample
lack of database

39

sources of biological evidence- wildlife

processed meat
antlers
feathers
scales
eggs
dried animal parts
gut piles
plant material

40

haploid

23 chromosomes; gametes

41

sources of biological evidence- human

blood
semen
saliva
urine
feces
hair
teeth
bone
tissue

42

insect succesion

necrophagus
predators
accidentals

43

applications of medico-criminal forensic entomology

time since death
neglect
regions of trauma
cause of death
drug consumption
location of death