Behavioral or Learning Models (Exam 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Behavioral or Learning Models (Exam 1) Deck (53):
1

origins of pathology

-people learn their problems
-learn behaviors that are effective in short-term, but not always in the long-run

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What are the principles?

-classical conditioning (ex: phobias)
-operant conditioning (ex: substance abuse, depression, etc.)

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Is this learning from direct instruction?

No, typically natural and passive

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What role does classical conditioning have in psychopathology?

phobias

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unconditioned stimulus (US)

stimulus that automatically leads to a response prior to any training (ex: food)

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unconditioned response (UR)

the response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of US (ex: salivation)

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conditioned stimulus (CS)

neutral stimulus that is paired with the US during classical conditioning (ex: feeder's steps)

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conditioned response (CR)

learned response produced by the conditioned stimulus (ex: dog salivates (CR) when hearing the feeder's footsteps (CS))

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Extinction in Classical Conditioning

presenting a CS repeatedly, after conditioning, without the US, resulting in a loss in responding

(ex: food no longer follows a bell, so dog gradually stops salivating in response to the bell)

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Spontaneous Recovery

recovery of an extinguished CR after a period of non exposure to the CS

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Operant Learning

instrumental behaviors that result in some reinforcer that increases the likelihood of future responses

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ABC's of learning

Antecedent
Behavior
Consequences

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stimulus response reinforcer of learning

S^D * R -> S^R

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What is behavior (R)?

action of interest

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response and consequence occurs in context of environmental cues

-discriminative stimulus
-paired with behaviors
-signal behaviors

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discriminiative stimulus

S^D

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reinforcers

increase probability of future responding (S^R)

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punishers

decrease probability of future responding (S^R-)

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function of reinforcers

-used to explain development of new behaviors and maintenance of behaviors
-do not occur on 1:1 ratio

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function of punishers

-do not work to sustain effective behaviors
-often teaches ineffective responding

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Why are reinforcers and punishers important?

-follow behavior
-depend on whether they function as reinforcers
-depend on whether organism is deprived of the reinforcer (E^0) (ex: flirting and infidelity)

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positive reinforcement

increases behavior, adds something (stimulus)

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negative reinforcement

increases behavior, removes something (stimulus)

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positive punishment

positive punishment, adds something (stimulus)

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negative punishment

negative punishment, removes something (stimulus)

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Escape conditioning

response leads to removal of aversive stimulus

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escape learning/response

terminating aversive stimulus once it starts

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avoidance conditioning

response prevents onset of aversive stimulus

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avoidance learning/response

preventing aversive stimulus before it starts

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How are problems sustained?

-Largely through avoidance or aversive events
-ineffective responding can produce stress on the organism

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avoidance of thoughts and feelings

can lead to more problems in living

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Do thoughts or feelings themselves produce problems?

no, avoidance produces problems

33

interpersonal problems

can be fundamental in bringing about and sustaining ineffective behaviors (psychopathology)

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When does extinction in Operant Conditioning occur?

occurs when reinforcement is no longer given

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What dictates how fast extinction happens?

different rates or schedules of reinforcement

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different rates or schedules of reinforcement

-some behaviors "resist" extinction
-were only reinforced occasionally
-some behaviors extinguish rapidly

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punishment

consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again

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positive punishment

presentation of an event after responding lowers likelihood of that response (ex: scolding)

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negative punishment

removal of an event after responding lowers likelihood of that response (ex: taking away allowance)

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Is punishment a good strategy?

no

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Punishment practical considerations

may effectively suppress behavior (ex: child fighting with a sibling)

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Limitations for punishment (practical considerations)

does not promote better, alternative behavior (ex: does not teach a child to cooperate with sibling)

better: reinforce an alternative response

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Can punishment increase aggression? (Practical considerations)

yes, may increase aggression

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Behavioral assumptions of curative factors

-nothing can be "unlearned"
-new, more effective behaviors can be learned that replace (supplant) older behaviors

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Do our thoughts affect our behaviors?

yes, how we treat our thoughts affects our other responses or behavior (ex: feelings as acceptable or intolerable)

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Behavioral or learning models challenges

-appears as an overly simplistic analysis of complex human behavior

-hard to conceptualize problems contextually that include rich factors

-difficult to identify all key variables in behavioral analysis

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What dominates the research literature?

behavioral therapies (and CBT) dominate the research literature (empirically supported)

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exposure therapies

have person become exposed to feared stimuli while preventing escape response (extinction)

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systematic desensitization

reduce conditioned response to CS

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behavioral activation

physically interacting with environment to increase availability and likelihood of reinforcers

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behavior rehearsal

skills training -> learn more effective behaviors -> teach skills important for social success (ex: assertiveness training)

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Cognitive Behavioral Treatments

combine cognitive strategies with behavioral activation and behavioral rehearsal strategies

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What accounts for the majority of CBT?

evidence suggests that behavioral activation accounts for the majority of the treatment for CBT