Flashcards in Behavioral or Learning Models (Exam 1) Deck (53):
origins of pathology
-people learn their problems
-learn behaviors that are effective in short-term, but not always in the long-run
What are the principles?
-classical conditioning (ex: phobias)
-operant conditioning (ex: substance abuse, depression, etc.)
Is this learning from direct instruction?
No, typically natural and passive
What role does classical conditioning have in psychopathology?
unconditioned stimulus (US)
stimulus that automatically leads to a response prior to any training (ex: food)
unconditioned response (UR)
the response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of US (ex: salivation)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
neutral stimulus that is paired with the US during classical conditioning (ex: feeder's steps)
conditioned response (CR)
learned response produced by the conditioned stimulus (ex: dog salivates (CR) when hearing the feeder's footsteps (CS))
Extinction in Classical Conditioning
presenting a CS repeatedly, after conditioning, without the US, resulting in a loss in responding
(ex: food no longer follows a bell, so dog gradually stops salivating in response to the bell)
recovery of an extinguished CR after a period of non exposure to the CS
instrumental behaviors that result in some reinforcer that increases the likelihood of future responses
ABC's of learning
stimulus response reinforcer of learning
S^D * R -> S^R
What is behavior (R)?
action of interest
response and consequence occurs in context of environmental cues
-paired with behaviors
increase probability of future responding (S^R)
decrease probability of future responding (S^R-)
function of reinforcers
-used to explain development of new behaviors and maintenance of behaviors
-do not occur on 1:1 ratio
function of punishers
-do not work to sustain effective behaviors
-often teaches ineffective responding
Why are reinforcers and punishers important?
-depend on whether they function as reinforcers
-depend on whether organism is deprived of the reinforcer (E^0) (ex: flirting and infidelity)
increases behavior, adds something (stimulus)
increases behavior, removes something (stimulus)
positive punishment, adds something (stimulus)
negative punishment, removes something (stimulus)
response leads to removal of aversive stimulus
terminating aversive stimulus once it starts
response prevents onset of aversive stimulus
preventing aversive stimulus before it starts
How are problems sustained?
-Largely through avoidance or aversive events
-ineffective responding can produce stress on the organism
avoidance of thoughts and feelings
can lead to more problems in living
Do thoughts or feelings themselves produce problems?
no, avoidance produces problems
can be fundamental in bringing about and sustaining ineffective behaviors (psychopathology)
When does extinction in Operant Conditioning occur?
occurs when reinforcement is no longer given
What dictates how fast extinction happens?
different rates or schedules of reinforcement
different rates or schedules of reinforcement
-some behaviors "resist" extinction
-were only reinforced occasionally
-some behaviors extinguish rapidly
consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again
presentation of an event after responding lowers likelihood of that response (ex: scolding)
removal of an event after responding lowers likelihood of that response (ex: taking away allowance)
Is punishment a good strategy?
Punishment practical considerations
may effectively suppress behavior (ex: child fighting with a sibling)
Limitations for punishment (practical considerations)
does not promote better, alternative behavior (ex: does not teach a child to cooperate with sibling)
better: reinforce an alternative response
Can punishment increase aggression? (Practical considerations)
yes, may increase aggression
Behavioral assumptions of curative factors
-nothing can be "unlearned"
-new, more effective behaviors can be learned that replace (supplant) older behaviors
Do our thoughts affect our behaviors?
yes, how we treat our thoughts affects our other responses or behavior (ex: feelings as acceptable or intolerable)
Behavioral or learning models challenges
-appears as an overly simplistic analysis of complex human behavior
-hard to conceptualize problems contextually that include rich factors
-difficult to identify all key variables in behavioral analysis
What dominates the research literature?
behavioral therapies (and CBT) dominate the research literature (empirically supported)
have person become exposed to feared stimuli while preventing escape response (extinction)
reduce conditioned response to CS
physically interacting with environment to increase availability and likelihood of reinforcers
skills training -> learn more effective behaviors -> teach skills important for social success (ex: assertiveness training)
Cognitive Behavioral Treatments
combine cognitive strategies with behavioral activation and behavioral rehearsal strategies