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Flashcards in Behavioral Science Deck (289):
1

What did Mary Ainsworth's experiments focus on?

Studied emotional attachment of infants in strange situations; secure or insecure

2

What are Feral Children?

Children deprived of social processes due to neglect and abandonment

3

What are mores?

highly important and strictly enforced norms in society

4

What are folkways?

customary ways of doing things in specific situations that uphold social order but don't invoke harsh penalties when violated like mores do

5

What are sanctions?

The penalties for breaking a social norm

6

What did Harry and Margaret Harlow's experiments focus on?

Harlow's monkeys were used to study attachment and how insecure attachment led to aggression

7

What is suburbanization?

people move from urban --> suburban areas leading to urban decline

8

What is gentrification?

rich people buy and revamp bad urban areas and replace the low-income communities there leading to urban growth

9

What is conflict theory?

Marx; anger or dissatisfaction based on inequality

10

What is feminist theory?

persistent gender inequalities

11

Latent functions

unintended (hidden) consequences

12

Manifest functions

intended consequences

13

What is inductive reasoning?

specific --> general; "bottom up"

14

What is deductive reasoning?

general --> specific; "top down"

15

What is Sub-replacement fertility?

death rate > birth rate

16

What is the population-lag effect?

Changes in total fertility rates are not reflected until female babies come of age to reproduce.

17

What is Fecundity?

The potential reproductive capacity of a single woman.

18

What is fertility rate?

# births/ 1,000 women in a population

19

What is external emigration?

Emigration across state/national lines usually due to political causes.

20

What is false consensus?

assuming everyone agrees with you

21

What is optimism bias?

believing that bad things only happen to other people, not you

22

What is confirmation bias?

Only looking at information that confirms your previously held beliefs.

23

What is belief perseverance bias?

ignoring/rationalizing facts that disconfirm your belief

24

What is social capital?

The ability to tap into social networks for resources.

25

What is absolute poverty?

Measure of the bare minimum for life.

26

What is relative poverty?

Measure of poverty where family income is compared to that of other families in the surrounding area.

27

What is delusional disorder?

has positive symptoms like delusions

28

What is the dependency ratio?

The ratio of the number of economically dependent members of the population (too young or old to work) to the number of economically productive members (working-age population).

29

What is linguistic relativity hypothesis? (Sapir-Whorfian hypothesis)

The hypothesis that suggests that human cognition is affected by language. People who speak different languages see the world differently

30

What are the characteristics of dissociative disorder?

A person avoids stress by escaping their identity.

31

What is the fundamental attribution error?

It refers to stressing the importance of dispositional (i.e. personality) factors in one's explanations of other people's behavior and underemphasizing situational (i.e. environmental) factors.

32

What is schematic processing?

Fast activation of schemas (organized clusters of knowledge); can indicate implicit attitude

33

What is social loafing?

People are more productive alone than in a group. Research also shows that people are less critical and less creative in groups.

34

What is the dependent variable?

The response that is observed by the researcher and is influenced by the independent variable.
Belongs on y-axis

35

What is the independent variable?

The variable the experimenter is systematically manipulating.
Belongs on x-axis

36

What cognitive functions is the left cerebral hemisphere linked with?

Vocabulary skills

37

What cognitive functions is the right cerebral hemisphere linked with?

Visuospatial skills, music perception, emotion processing

38

What is interferance?

When studying new material, new information introduced between initial learning (encoding) and retrieval, (like watching a movie, will interfere with memory consolidation.

39

What is emotional intelligence?

The ability to perceive, express, understand, and manage one's emotions. Can delay gratification rather than indulge immediate impulses.

40

What is the Hawthorne effect?

It says that behavior of study subjects changes because they recognize they are being studied.

41

What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?

An individuals internalization of a label that leads to fulfillment of that label.

42

What is impression management?

Individual actively managing how they are perceived by others.

43

What does the Tomas theorem state?

It states that if an individual believes something to be real, then it is real in its consequences.

44

What is a confounding error?

An error where the research incorrectly concludes a causal link between two correlated variables. Happens during data analysis.

45

What is detection bias?

Educated professionals using their knowledge in an inconsistent way by searching for an outcome disproportionately in certain populations.

46

What is selection bias?

The subjects used for a study are not representative of the target population.

47

What is Hill's criteria for an observed relationship to be causal?

Temporality (independent V happens before dependent V)
Strength
Dose-response relationship
Consistency (relationship similar in multiple settings)
Plausibility
Elimination of alt explanation
Experiment can be performed
Specificity (change in out come produce by change in independent V)
Coherence with current scientific knowledge

48

What are the types of observational studies and what do they show?

Show correlation; cohort, cross-sectional, case-control

49

What is a cohort study?

Record exposure throughout time and then assess the rate of a certain outcome

50

What is a cross-sectional study?

Assess both exposure and outcome at the same point in time.

51

What is a case-control study?

Retrospective-- start by looking at subjects w/ w/o specific outcomes and look backwards to see if each group had exposure to particular risk factors.

52

What is a control?

A standard that corrects for any outside influences that are not part of the model.

53

What does a positive control do?

Ensures change in the dependent V occurs when expected

54

What does a negative control do?

Ensures that no change in the dependent variable occurs when none is expected.

55

What is validity (accuracy)?

The ability of an instrument to measure a true value.
Better accuracy reduces systemic error and bias.

56

What is reliability (precision)?

The ability of an instrument to read consistently.

57

In a single-blind experiment..

only the assessor is blinded

58

In a double-blind experiment...

the assessor and the subject are blinded

59

What are Erikson's Stages of psychosocial development?

Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) (Can I trust the world?)
Autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-3) (Is it okay to be me?)
Initiative vs. guilt (3-6) (Is it okay for me to do, move, and act?)
Industry vs. inferiority (6-12) Can I make it in the world?
Identity vs. role confusion (12-20) (Who am I and what can I be?)
Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-40) (Can I love?)
Generativity vs. stagnation (40-65) (Can I make my life count?)
Integrity vs. despair (65-dead) (Is it okay to have been me?)

60

What are Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development?

Oral (0-1) (--> dependency)
Anal (1-3) (--> OCD or sloppy)
Phallic (3-5) (establish sexual identity; internalize moral values; do school work)
Latency (5--puberty) (libido sublimated until puberty)
Genital (puberty--adulthood) (--> homosexuality)
*--> fixation leads to

61

What are Kohlberg's stages of Moral Development?

Preconventional -- children (1. Obedience (avoid punishment) 2. Self-interest (gain rewards)
Conventional -- normal adult(1. Conformity (good girl) 2. Law and Order)
Postconventional -- select adults (5. Social Contract (rules for greater good) 6. Universal human ethics (abstract principles)

62

What is a reference group?

The group we are comparing ourselves to

63

What is Vygotsky zone of proximal development?

Gaining the skills in this zone require the help of a "more knowledgeable other" (adult)

64

What is the theory of mind?

The ability to sense how another's mind works

65

What is the looking-glass self?

Other reflecting our selves back to ourselves.

66

What is working memory?

Second Stage: Involved in reasoning and comprehension; processing information; 7 +/- 2 items at a time

67

What is sensory memory?

First stage: Memories of sensory information (Iconic= visual; echoic= auditory)

68

What is implicit memory?

LT memory; Unconscious memory of facts (semantic), and skills (procedural)

69

Behavioral therapists focus on...

action over cogntion

70

Trait perspective focuses on...

group traits of your personality into patterns of behavior
surface traits- from person's behavior
source traits- factors of underlying human personality (underlying and more abstract)

71

Freudian perspectives focus on...

the unconscious

72

Humanist therapists focus on//

self-actualization and helping become more fulfilled

73

What is JND/Weber's Law?

JND=change/original --> percentage

74

The social cognitive perspective focuses on...

expectations of others

75

What is Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective of personality?

Id - pleasure principle; immediate gratification
Ego - reality principle; mediator between Id and superego
Superego - perfectionist

76

What is bystander effect?

People are less likely to help when others are present

77

What is deindividuation?

losing your self-awareness or self-restraint in groups (violent riots)

78

What is demographic transition?

The transition from high death and low birth rates to high birth and low death rates as a country develops from pre-industrial to industrial.

79

What is a heuristic?

A mental shortcut to make judgments by comparing external info to our mental prototypes.

80

What is cognitive dissonance?

Having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes; specifically relates to behavioral decisions and attitude change.

81

What are the effects of desegregation/mixing people?

cognitiive dissonance (btwn beliefs (streotypes) and experience (interactions)); individualizing the other and avoiding heuristics; changing the definition of we and they

82

What is the amygdala associated with?

fear response and aggression; interprets facial expressions; part of implicit memory for actual feelings of emotion; sexual activity and libido

83

What does the limbic system control and what are it's parts?

motivation and emotion
amygdala (fear and aggression)
septal nuclei (pleasure-seeking)
hippocampus (memory)
fornix (communication within the limbic system)
thalamus (relay station for sense which emotions are contingent on)
Hypothalamus (regulates ANS and controls endocrine system)

84

What is borderline personality disorder?

risky sexual behavior, attention seeking, instability in relationships, mood, and self image, splitting (all good or all bad), fear of abandonment

85

What is manic-depressive (bipolar) disorder?

alternating periods of mania and depression

86

What is escape learning?

Conditioned to performa a "shut this off" reaction to an aversive stimulus. (Taking advil for a headache)

87

Substance abuse is defined as ..

an individual deviant behavior

88

What is symbolic interactionism?

interact with the world to give it meaning, our behavior depends on the meanings we give things

89

What is social constructionism?

How we construct concepts and principles (social construct ex: money, work ethic, dress code, gender roles)

90

What is game theory?

Theory that explains decision making in terms of a game.

91

When does Specific real area bias occur?

When the sampling of a population occurs at one location which causes the omission of other populations.

92

What is self-serving bias?

attributing success to internal factors and failure to external factors

93

What is Berkson's fallacy?

The sampling bias from picking control and observed population from hospital location.

94

Acetylcholine

major NT at NMJ

95

Dopamine

elevated levels linked to schizophrenia; schizo related symptoms seem with high doses of cocaine

96

GABA

major inhibitory NT

97

Glycine

inhibitor NT used in brainstem and spinal column

98

What is Arousal Theory of Motivation?

Ppl behave in way that maintains an optimal level of physiological arousal.

99

What is Drive-reduction Theory of Motivation?

Unmet phys needs (access to water) creates a drive state (thirst) to motivate the animal to reduce the drive, and therefore satisfy the need (drink)

100

What is Instinct Theory?

Behaviors are motivated by instinctual and typical behaviors of a given species.

101

What is Incentive Theory of motivation?

Ppl behave to achieve a reward.; associates positive meaning with a behavior

102

What are taboos?

Worst thing you could ever do in society (murder)

103

What is Exchange-rational choice?

Theory focused on individuals' choice-making behavior in a utilitarian sense.

104

What is Functionalist theory?

Focuses on understanding society in term of functional components which all have to be in balance for society to exist.

105

What are the variable in a correlational study?

Correlational studies don't have independent and dependent variables. Instead they have predictor on x axis and criterion on y axis.

106

What is Gambler's fallacy?

"lucky streak" makes ppl think they have better chances at winning even though the probability doesn't change

107

Piaget's Stages of Development

(0-2) Sensorimotor (object permanence)
(2-7) Preoperational (speaking and pretend play)
(7-11) Concrete operational (Conservation and reasoning)
(12+) Formal operational (abstract logic)

108

What is a clinical study?

A highly controlled interventional study

109

What is a randomized controlled trial?

*gold standard clinical trial* People who are being studied are randomly given treatments under study to test efficacy/side effects of medical intervention (drugs)

110

What is internal validity?

Extent to which a CAUSAL conclusion can be made form a study (reduced by confounding variables)

111

What is external validity?

whether results of the study can be generalized to other situations and other people (sample must be random and situational variables tightly controlled)

112

What is construct validity?

whether a tool is measuring what is intended to measure

113

What is regression to the mean?

If first measurement is extreme, second measurement will be closer to the mean

114

What are confounding variables?

Changes in dependent variable may be due to existence of/ variation in a third variable

115

What are temporal confounds?

Time related confounding variables

116

What is Vehicular control?

What experimental group does without the directly desired impact

117

What is positive control?

Treatment with known response

118

What is negative control?

Group with no response expected

119

What is vehicular control?

A type of negative control where instead of giving the negative control group nothing you follow the same procedure just minus the variable of interest. (drug comes in saline --> give just saline to negative control group)

120

Social Movement: Mass Society Theory

Social movements that form from people seeking refuge from main society
"mass society" --> "Mass murder"
Nazism, Stalinism, Fascism

121

Social Movement: Relative Deprivation Theory

actions of groups that have been oppressed/deprived of rights

122

Social Movement: Resource Mobilization Theory

focuses on factors that help/hinder social movements like access to resources (money, material, political influence, charismatic leader (MLK and civil rights movement)

123

Social Movement: Rational Choice Theory

People weigh pros and cons and choose the course of action that would most benefit them

124

What is impression management?

The ACTIVE process of creating a specific impression of yourself to others.

125

Participant obervation

Requires the research to directly participate in the social phenomena being studied

126

Symbolic racism

believe that racism is wrong but do not see racism as a significant institutional problem in society since 1960s

127

Jim crow racism

believe in institutional racism

128

Representativeness heuristic

people look for the most representative answer like if a person matches a prototype
can lead to conjunction fallacy- means co-occurence of two instances is more likely than a single one

129

Availability heuristic

using examples that come to ming (from memories) to make a decision

130

REM sleep is also called

paradoxical sleep
brain activity similar to person in awake state
paralysis, increased respiration rate

131

What is the Expectancy-Value Theory of motivation?

Motivation is related to 2 primary factors:
1) the individual's perceived likelihood of success and 2) the relative value of the rewards associated with success

132

The amygdala

is involved in perceptions and experiences of primal emotions such as anger.

133

What are the two dimensions of emotion?

1) Arousal - the degree to which an emotion/experience is activated or deactivated.
2) Valence- the inherent attractiveness or aversiveness

134

What is Intersectionality?

Suggests that the interconnections between race, class, and gender create overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.

135

What is miscegnation?

the mixing of racial and ethnic groups in intimate relationships

136

Which cell type is responsible for transduction of an auditory signal?

Inner hair cells of the cochlea are the sensory receptors for the human auditory system

137

What are the outer hair cells of the cochlea used for?

Mechanical amplification

138

What are the hair cells of the semicircular canals for?

They transduce vestibular information about rotational acceleration.

139

What happens to your eyes when it is bright out?

Down regulation: Pupils constrict, less light hits the back of the eye, rods and cones become desensitized to light

140

What happens to your eyes when it is dark out?

Up regulation: Pupils dilate, more light hits the back of the eye, rods and cones start synthesizing light sensitive molecules

141

How do you calculate the Just Noticeable Difference?

delta I/I

142

What is Weber's Law?

delta I/I = k
linear relationship between incremental threshold and background intensity (delta I vs I is a constant)

143

Visual cues allow us to perceptually organize the following cues:

depth (binocular)
form, motion, constancy (monocular)

144

What is the difference between JND (difference threshold) and absolute threshold)?

JND= smallest difference that can be detected 50% of the time
Absolute= min intensity of stimulus needed to detect it 50% of the time (can be influenced by outside factors; state depended)

145

What is Bottom-up processing?

inductive reasoning; data driven; happens when you're looking at something you've never seen before

146

What is top-down processing?

deductive reasoning; theory driven; using background knowledge to deduce something based on what you already know

147

Gestalt principle of Similarity

brain groups items that are similar to each other




148

Gestalt principle of Pragnanz

reality organized to simplest shapes

149

Gestalt principle of proximity

objects close together are grouped together

150

Gestalt principle of continuity

lines are seen as following the smoothest path

151

Gestalt principle of closure

filling in missing information to form a whole

152

Gestalt principle of symmetry

mind perceives objects as being symmetrical and forming around a center point

153

Gestalt principle: Law of common fate

objects moving in the same path/ direction are grouped together

154

Gestalt principle: Law of past experiences

categorize visual stimuli based on past experiences

155

Gestalt principle: context effects

can establish the way stimuli are perceived/organized; can bias decisions but does not play into decision making process

156

cornea

outermost layer; curves light and focuses it on the retina at the back of the eye

157

pupil

dark space in the middle of the iris that lets light enter

158

iris

gives your eye color; has a muscle that get smaller when there's a lot of light and bigger when there isn't much light

159

lens

bends the light and specifically focus images on the back of your eye at the fovea

160

accommodation of lens

the lens gets flatter when you look far and wider when you look close

161

ciliary body

suspensory ligaments+ ciliary muscle --> secrete aqueous humor

162

posterior chamber

area behind the iris to the back of the lens; filled with aqueous humor

163

vitreous chamber

filled with vitreous humor; nutrients and internal pressure

164

retina

where the image is formed; filled with photoreceptors that converter physical waveform light to electrochemical impulse the brain can interpret

165

conjunctiva

thin layer of cells that lines the inside of your eyelid from the eye

166

macula

special part of the retina with LOTS of rods; some cones

167

fovea

special part of macula COMPLETELY CONES, no rods; great visual clarity

168

During daytime, light is focused on the

fovea, lots of cons to perceive color

169

During nightime, light is spread out to the

periphery of retina, covered in rods

170

cones

6 mil, detect COLOR, details when there is light, shorter than rods
fast recovery time
photopsin

171

rods

120 mil, detect LIGHT (1000x more sensitive to light than cones), help us see at night, longer than cones (found in periphery of retina) ; 60^ R< 30% G, 10% B
slow recovery time (need time to turn off as eyes adjust to dark)

172

choroid

pigmented black in humans (black= absorbs all light), a network of BV that help nourish the retina
some animals have a different color choroid that gives them better night vision
rhodopsin

173

sclera

white of the eye; covers 5/6th of the posterior eyeball (cornea covers anterior 1/6th of eyeball)

174

Transmission

electrical activation of one neuron by another neuron

175

Perception

conscious sensory experience of neural processing

176

Processing

neural transformation of multiple signals into a perception

177

Transduction

occurs whenever energy is transformed from one form to another (light energy is transformed to electrical energy in the visual sensory pathway)

178

What is the phototransduction cascade?

Light hits rods (which causes rod turns off) --> bipolar cell (turns on) --> retinal ganglion cell (turns on) --> optic nerve --> BRAIN.
process of rod turning from ON --> OFF

179

The opponent process theory of color vision states

you have cones that percieve 4 colors: red, blue, green and YELLOW
red and green oppose each other as do blue and yello and black and white
only one of the opponents in each pair can be seen at a time

180

Photopic vision

occurs at high light levels

181

Mesopic vision

occurs at dawn or dusk and involves both rods and cones

182

Scotopic vision

occurs at levels of very low light

183

What is the visual pathway?

cornea--> pupil--> lens--> vitreous--> rods/cones--> bipolar cells--> ganglion cells --> optic nerve--> optic chiasm --> Lateral Geniculate nucleus (thalamus) --> visual radiations through the temporal and parietal lobes--> visucal cortex (occipital lobe)

184

Feature Detection

need to break an object down to its component structures to make sense of what you are looking at. The 3 features to consider are:
1) Color-- trichromatic theory
2) Form -- shape of an object via the Parvocellular pathway (high spatial, low temporal)
3) Motion -- Magnocellular pathway (high temporal, low spatial)

185

Auditory pathway

pinna--> auditor canal--> tympanic membrane (eardrum) vibrates back and forth--> vibration of ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) --> oval window vibrates--> vibrates fluid through the Cochlea --> through the organ of corti over the hairs on the basilar membrane --> electrical impulse is sent to auditory nerve and fluid moves through round window

186

Place theory

you are able to hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea's basilar membrane

187

How does the cochlea distinguish between sounds of varying frequency?

Basilar tuning = Hair cells at base (start of cochlea) are activated by HIGH frequency sounds and hair cells at apex (end of cochlea) are activated by low frequency sounds. Longer wavelength travels further.

188

Somatosensory Homunculus

map of your body in your brain

189

Gate control theory

non-painful input closes that gates to painful input which prevents pain sensation from traveling to the CNS

190

Anosmia

inability to perceive odor

191

Gustation- 5 main taste

bitter, salty, sweet, sour, umami (ability to taste glutamate)

192

What is the fastest route of drug entry

intramuscular injection

193

What is the most direct route of drug entry

intravenous injection

194

cross tolerance

reduction in the efficacy or responsiveness to a novel drug due to a common CNS target

195

Reward pathway

VTA--> dopamine--> aymgdala, nucleus accumbus, hippocampus, septal nuclei (pleasure-seeking)

196

Cocktail party effect

ability to concentrate on one voice amongst a crowd or when someone calls your name (endogenous cue --> meaning of name draws attention?

197

distal stimuli vs. proximal stimuli

are objects and events out in the world about you vs. the patterns of stimuli that actually reach your sensory organs

198

orienting attention involves what neurotransmitter

ACTH

199

executive attention involves what NT

dopamine

200

Shadowing task

monitors selective attention; you wear headphones and told to repeat everything said in one ear and ignore the other

201

Broadbent's Early Selection Theory

Sensory register --> selective filter --> perceptual process --> Conscious

202

Treisnman's Attenuation Theory

Sensory register --> attenuator --> perceptual process --> Conscious

203

Deutch & Deutch's Late Selection Theory

Sensory register --> perceptual process --> selective filter --> Conscious

204

Johnson and Heinz

you can change your attenuator based on demands of your environment

205

Activation Synthesis Hypothesis

dreams are a product of our brain trying to find meaning for random brain activity
brainstem= activation
cortex= synthesis

206

dual coding hypothesis

it's easier to remember words associated with images than either one alone

207

method of loci

imagine moving through a familiar place and each room or object is a topic to be remembered

208

priming

an implicit memory effect where expose to one stimulus influences the response to another stimulus
- caused by spreading activation -- the stimulus activates a memory/association just before carrying our the reponse

209

Chunking

encoding strategy where we group info meaningful categories to help with memorization

210

Serial position curve

tend to remember first few (primacy) and last few (recency) items on a list in free recall

211

What cognitive ability improve with aging?

Semantic memory, crystallized IQ and emotional reasoning

212

What cognitive abilities remain stable with aging?

implicit memory, and recognition

213

Fluid Intelligence

ability to reason quickly and abstractly; tends to decrease as we age

214

Crystallized Intelligence

accumulated knowledge and verbal skills that usually increases or stays the same into adulthood

215

Spearman's idea of general intelligence

single g factor responsible for intelligence that underlies performance on all cognitive tasks

216

Gardner's idea of 8 intelligences

differentiates intelligence into different modalities

217

Galton's idea of hereditary genius

human's ability is hereditary

218

Binet's idea of mental age

comparing how a child at a specific age performs intellectually compared to average intellectual performance for that physical age in years

219

Behaviorist Theory of Language (Skinner)

empiricist, language is just conditioned behavior learned through operant conditions
but this doesnt really explain how children produce words they've never hear before

220

Nativist theory language (Chomsky)

rationalist, language must be innate
born with the ability to learn it (Lang acquisition device)
critical period (birth - 9yo) most able to learn a language

221

Materialist theory of language

looks at what happens in the brain when people think/speak/write

222

Interactionist theory of language (Vygotsky)

bio and social factors interact in order for children to learn language + child's desire to communicate with adults

223

Broca's area

FRONTAL LOBE; Broca/expressive aphasia--> can't PRODUCE speech but understanding is unaffected

224

Wernicke's area

TEMPORAL LOBE; Wernicke's aphasia --> say words that don't make sense and cannot understand what other say; BUT can hear words and repeat them back

225

Agraphia

inability to write

226

Anomia

inability to name things

227

Left hemisphere

language

228

Right hemisphere

action/perception/attention

229

Cerebral cortex

left side for positive emotions; right side for negative emotions

230

Prefrontal cortex

executive controls: solve problems, make decision, hot to actin social situations

231

James Lange theory of emotion

1. NS response
2. conscious emotion

232

Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

1. NS response and conscious emotion
2. action

233

Schachter-Singer theory of emotion

1. NS response and cognitive appraisal
2. Conscious emotion

234

Lazarus Theory of emotion

1. Cognitive appraisal of situation
2. NS response and conscious emotion

235

Yerkes-Dodson Law

people perform optimally when they are moderately emotionally stimulated

236

Reticular activating system

controls arousal and alertness levels

237

What are the 3 phases of general adaptation syndrome?

1. Alarm (SNS kicks in in response to stress)
2. Resistance (fleeing, huddling, bathed in cortisol)
3. Exhaustion (if resistance isn't followed by recovery, we become susceptible to illness)

238

What brain areas atrophy due to chronic stress?

hippocampus and frontal cortex (have the most glucocorticoid receptors)

239

Glutamate

excitatory NT; Reticular activating system has diffuse projection of glutamate to the cerebral cortex

240

GABA (brain) and Glycine (spinal cord)

inhibitory NTs

241

Acetylcholine

released by the Basilis and septal nuciei in frontal lobe for LMNs and ANS--> voluntary muscle control, parasymp NS, attention, alertness

242

Histamine

sent from Hytpothalamus

243

Norepinephrine

released from the locus ceruleus in the pons; for ANS too
fight-or-flight response, wakefulness, alertness

244

Serotonin

released from the raphe nuclee in midbrain and medulla;
mood, sleep, eating, dreaming

245

Dopamine

released from the VTA and substantia nigra
smooth movements, postural stability

246

EEG

external, looks at sum of brain activity, used to asses seizures, sleep stages, cognitive tasks
*can't tell us about the activity of individual/grous of neurons

247

MEG (aka SQUIDS)

better resolution than EEG but rarer because requires a large machine and special room

248

fMRI

can see blood flow to specific brain regions which tells you which brain regions are active

249

PET scans

inject glucose into cells and see what areas of brain are more active at a give point in time
can't give detail of structure but can combine with CAT scans and MRIs

250

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

when our thoughts, attitudes and behaviors don't align; tend to reduce this discomfort by doing 4 tings:
1. Modify our cognitions
2. Trivialize
3. Add
4. Deny

251

long term potentiation

after repeated stimulation, the presynaptic neuron will elicit a strong and stronger response in the post synaptic neuron ---> stronger synapse

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Love
4. Self-esteem
5. self-actualization

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ABC model of attitude

Affective (emotional); behavioral (how we behave towards object/subject); cognitive (thoughts/beliefs about the subject)

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Prototype Willingness Model of Attitude

Behavior is a function of 6 things: past behavior, subjective norms, our intentions, our willingness to engage in a specific type of behavior, prototypes/models =(a lot of our behavior)

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Elaboration Likelihood Model for Persuasion

attitudes form and change based on route of info processing & degree of elaboration
central route processing: depends on quality of arguments
peripheral route processing: depends on superficial details of persuasive cues

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Foot in the door technique

ask for a small favor--> bigger favor --> even bigger favor;
how people get taken advantage of

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Role-playing

changing attitude as a result of changing our behavior to fit a new role. Ex. Zimbardo's prison experiment

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Attribution

process of inferring causes of events/behaviors

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Freud- Psychoanalytic theory

a person's personality is determined by a person's unconscious desires and past memories
2 instinctual drives motivate human behavior:
libido= motivation for survival, growth, pleasure
death instinct= drives aggressive behaviors fueled by unconscious wish to die or hurt oneself/others

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Projection

projecting own feelings of inadequacy on another

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reaction formation

defense mechanism where someone says/does exact opposite of what they actually want/feel

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regression

defense mechanism where you regress into a child in stressful situation

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sublimation

defense mechanism where unwanted impulses are transformed into something less harmful

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Freudian slip

example of a mental conflict. Ex: financially stressed patient say "please don't give me any bills" whey they meant pills

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Humanistic theory (Carl Rogers)

says people are inherently good; focuses on the conscious and how we are self-motivated to improve so we can reach self-actualization
Genuine (in our values) + acceptance (by others)= self-concept

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Hans Eysenck's Biological Theory of Behavior

extroversion level is based on reticular formation - introverts are more easily aroused and therefore require less

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Jeffrey Alan Gray Biological Theory of Behavior

personality is governed by 3 brain systems (like fight-or-flight)

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C. Robert Cloninger Biological theory of Behavior

linked personality to brain systems in reward/motivation/punishment (dopamine correlated with higher impulsivity)

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Behaviorist Theory

we start as blank states and the environment completely determines our behavior; focuses on observable and measurable behavior rather than mental/emotional behaviors

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Gordon Allport's 3 basic categories of traits

cardinal (dominant, influence all of our behaviors)
central (general trait)
secondary (preferences/attitudes)
we all have unique subsets

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Raymond Cattell

proposed we all had 16 essential personality traits --> turn this into a 16 personality factor questionnaire (16 PF)

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Hans Eysenk 3 major dimensions of personality

1. Extroversion
2. Neuroticism (emotional instability)
3. Psychoticism (degree to which reality is distorted)
we all have these traits but just express them at different degrees (different then Allport)

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5 Factor Model (Big 5)

OCEAN
openness
conscientiousness
extroversion
agreeableness
neuroticism

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Nuerodevelopmental Disorders

disability due to abnormality in development of NS; includes intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and ADHD

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Nuerocognitive Disorders

delirium (reversible), dementia (irreversible)

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Anxiety disorders

abnormal worry/fear; general or specific (phobia); panic disorder involves panic attacks

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Bipolar and related disorder

abnormal mood; have manic/hypomanic episodes

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Schizophrenia Spectrum and other Psychotic Disorders

distress/disability from psychosis (delusion/hallucinations)

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Personality Disorders: 3 Clusters

A: eccentric
B: intense emotional/ relationship problems
C: anxious/avoidant/obsessive

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Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

distress/disability from bodily symptoms that have no physiological origin and are unrelated to a mental disorder (ex: stomach pain from stress)

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Elimination Disorders

urination/defecation at inappropriate times

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Group Polarization

group decision making amplifies the original opinion of group members
views don't have equal influence, majority rules

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Groupthink

suppressing your own opinions to maintain harmony among group members; reduces how analytical you in problem solving

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Anomie

breakdown of social bonds between an individual and community

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Normative Social Influence

Conforming to social norms to gain resect/support of peers; go with group outwardly, but intenrally believe something different

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Informational Social Influence

Conforming because we feel like others know more than us

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Asch Conformity Studies

social acts have be understood in their setting, and lose meaning if isolated; human behavior must be understood as a whole

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Social Facilitation

The presence of others will produce the most dominant response i.e. the response most likely to occur
Presence of others increases your arousal --> increase likelihood of dominant response.
Presence of other improves performance on simple tasks; hinders performance on difficult tasks

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Socialization

life-long process of learning how to interact with others. Everything we consider to be normal is learned through socialization --> norms helps us fit in