Flashcards in Behavioral Science Deck (289):
What did Mary Ainsworth's experiments focus on?
Studied emotional attachment of infants in strange situations; secure or insecure
What are Feral Children?
Children deprived of social processes due to neglect and abandonment
What are mores?
highly important and strictly enforced norms in society
What are folkways?
customary ways of doing things in specific situations that uphold social order but don't invoke harsh penalties when violated like mores do
What are sanctions?
The penalties for breaking a social norm
What did Harry and Margaret Harlow's experiments focus on?
Harlow's monkeys were used to study attachment and how insecure attachment led to aggression
What is suburbanization?
people move from urban --> suburban areas leading to urban decline
What is gentrification?
rich people buy and revamp bad urban areas and replace the low-income communities there leading to urban growth
What is conflict theory?
Marx; anger or dissatisfaction based on inequality
What is feminist theory?
persistent gender inequalities
unintended (hidden) consequences
What is inductive reasoning?
specific --> general; "bottom up"
What is deductive reasoning?
general --> specific; "top down"
What is Sub-replacement fertility?
death rate > birth rate
What is the population-lag effect?
Changes in total fertility rates are not reflected until female babies come of age to reproduce.
What is Fecundity?
The potential reproductive capacity of a single woman.
What is fertility rate?
# births/ 1,000 women in a population
What is external emigration?
Emigration across state/national lines usually due to political causes.
What is false consensus?
assuming everyone agrees with you
What is optimism bias?
believing that bad things only happen to other people, not you
What is confirmation bias?
Only looking at information that confirms your previously held beliefs.
What is belief perseverance bias?
ignoring/rationalizing facts that disconfirm your belief
What is social capital?
The ability to tap into social networks for resources.
What is absolute poverty?
Measure of the bare minimum for life.
What is relative poverty?
Measure of poverty where family income is compared to that of other families in the surrounding area.
What is delusional disorder?
has positive symptoms like delusions
What is the dependency ratio?
The ratio of the number of economically dependent members of the population (too young or old to work) to the number of economically productive members (working-age population).
What is linguistic relativity hypothesis? (Sapir-Whorfian hypothesis)
The hypothesis that suggests that human cognition is affected by language. People who speak different languages see the world differently
What are the characteristics of dissociative disorder?
A person avoids stress by escaping their identity.
What is the fundamental attribution error?
It refers to stressing the importance of dispositional (i.e. personality) factors in one's explanations of other people's behavior and underemphasizing situational (i.e. environmental) factors.
What is schematic processing?
Fast activation of schemas (organized clusters of knowledge); can indicate implicit attitude
What is social loafing?
People are more productive alone than in a group. Research also shows that people are less critical and less creative in groups.
What is the dependent variable?
The response that is observed by the researcher and is influenced by the independent variable.
Belongs on y-axis
What is the independent variable?
The variable the experimenter is systematically manipulating.
Belongs on x-axis
What cognitive functions is the left cerebral hemisphere linked with?
What cognitive functions is the right cerebral hemisphere linked with?
Visuospatial skills, music perception, emotion processing
What is interferance?
When studying new material, new information introduced between initial learning (encoding) and retrieval, (like watching a movie, will interfere with memory consolidation.
What is emotional intelligence?
The ability to perceive, express, understand, and manage one's emotions. Can delay gratification rather than indulge immediate impulses.
What is the Hawthorne effect?
It says that behavior of study subjects changes because they recognize they are being studied.
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
An individuals internalization of a label that leads to fulfillment of that label.
What is impression management?
Individual actively managing how they are perceived by others.
What does the Tomas theorem state?
It states that if an individual believes something to be real, then it is real in its consequences.
What is a confounding error?
An error where the research incorrectly concludes a causal link between two correlated variables. Happens during data analysis.
What is detection bias?
Educated professionals using their knowledge in an inconsistent way by searching for an outcome disproportionately in certain populations.
What is selection bias?
The subjects used for a study are not representative of the target population.
What is Hill's criteria for an observed relationship to be causal?
Temporality (independent V happens before dependent V)
Consistency (relationship similar in multiple settings)
Elimination of alt explanation
Experiment can be performed
Specificity (change in out come produce by change in independent V)
Coherence with current scientific knowledge
What are the types of observational studies and what do they show?
Show correlation; cohort, cross-sectional, case-control
What is a cohort study?
Record exposure throughout time and then assess the rate of a certain outcome
What is a cross-sectional study?
Assess both exposure and outcome at the same point in time.
What is a case-control study?
Retrospective-- start by looking at subjects w/ w/o specific outcomes and look backwards to see if each group had exposure to particular risk factors.
What is a control?
A standard that corrects for any outside influences that are not part of the model.
What does a positive control do?
Ensures change in the dependent V occurs when expected
What does a negative control do?
Ensures that no change in the dependent variable occurs when none is expected.
What is validity (accuracy)?
The ability of an instrument to measure a true value.
Better accuracy reduces systemic error and bias.
What is reliability (precision)?
The ability of an instrument to read consistently.
In a single-blind experiment..
only the assessor is blinded
In a double-blind experiment...
the assessor and the subject are blinded
What are Erikson's Stages of psychosocial development?
Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) (Can I trust the world?)
Autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-3) (Is it okay to be me?)
Initiative vs. guilt (3-6) (Is it okay for me to do, move, and act?)
Industry vs. inferiority (6-12) Can I make it in the world?
Identity vs. role confusion (12-20) (Who am I and what can I be?)
Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-40) (Can I love?)
Generativity vs. stagnation (40-65) (Can I make my life count?)
Integrity vs. despair (65-dead) (Is it okay to have been me?)
What are Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development?
Oral (0-1) (--> dependency)
Anal (1-3) (--> OCD or sloppy)
Phallic (3-5) (establish sexual identity; internalize moral values; do school work)
Latency (5--puberty) (libido sublimated until puberty)
Genital (puberty--adulthood) (--> homosexuality)
*--> fixation leads to
What are Kohlberg's stages of Moral Development?
Preconventional -- children (1. Obedience (avoid punishment) 2. Self-interest (gain rewards)
Conventional -- normal adult(1. Conformity (good girl) 2. Law and Order)
Postconventional -- select adults (5. Social Contract (rules for greater good) 6. Universal human ethics (abstract principles)
What is a reference group?
The group we are comparing ourselves to
What is Vygotsky zone of proximal development?
Gaining the skills in this zone require the help of a "more knowledgeable other" (adult)
What is the theory of mind?
The ability to sense how another's mind works
What is the looking-glass self?
Other reflecting our selves back to ourselves.
What is working memory?
Second Stage: Involved in reasoning and comprehension; processing information; 7 +/- 2 items at a time
What is sensory memory?
First stage: Memories of sensory information (Iconic= visual; echoic= auditory)
What is implicit memory?
LT memory; Unconscious memory of facts (semantic), and skills (procedural)
Behavioral therapists focus on...
action over cogntion
Trait perspective focuses on...
group traits of your personality into patterns of behavior
surface traits- from person's behavior
source traits- factors of underlying human personality (underlying and more abstract)
Freudian perspectives focus on...
Humanist therapists focus on//
self-actualization and helping become more fulfilled
What is JND/Weber's Law?
JND=change/original --> percentage
The social cognitive perspective focuses on...
expectations of others
What is Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective of personality?
Id - pleasure principle; immediate gratification
Ego - reality principle; mediator between Id and superego
Superego - perfectionist
What is bystander effect?
People are less likely to help when others are present
What is deindividuation?
losing your self-awareness or self-restraint in groups (violent riots)
What is demographic transition?
The transition from high death and low birth rates to high birth and low death rates as a country develops from pre-industrial to industrial.
What is a heuristic?
A mental shortcut to make judgments by comparing external info to our mental prototypes.
What is cognitive dissonance?
Having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes; specifically relates to behavioral decisions and attitude change.
What are the effects of desegregation/mixing people?
cognitiive dissonance (btwn beliefs (streotypes) and experience (interactions)); individualizing the other and avoiding heuristics; changing the definition of we and they
What is the amygdala associated with?
fear response and aggression; interprets facial expressions; part of implicit memory for actual feelings of emotion; sexual activity and libido
What does the limbic system control and what are it's parts?
motivation and emotion
amygdala (fear and aggression)
septal nuclei (pleasure-seeking)
fornix (communication within the limbic system)
thalamus (relay station for sense which emotions are contingent on)
Hypothalamus (regulates ANS and controls endocrine system)
What is borderline personality disorder?
risky sexual behavior, attention seeking, instability in relationships, mood, and self image, splitting (all good or all bad), fear of abandonment
What is manic-depressive (bipolar) disorder?
alternating periods of mania and depression
What is escape learning?
Conditioned to performa a "shut this off" reaction to an aversive stimulus. (Taking advil for a headache)
Substance abuse is defined as ..
an individual deviant behavior
What is symbolic interactionism?
interact with the world to give it meaning, our behavior depends on the meanings we give things
What is social constructionism?
How we construct concepts and principles (social construct ex: money, work ethic, dress code, gender roles)
What is game theory?
Theory that explains decision making in terms of a game.
When does Specific real area bias occur?
When the sampling of a population occurs at one location which causes the omission of other populations.
What is self-serving bias?
attributing success to internal factors and failure to external factors
What is Berkson's fallacy?
The sampling bias from picking control and observed population from hospital location.
major NT at NMJ
elevated levels linked to schizophrenia; schizo related symptoms seem with high doses of cocaine
major inhibitory NT
inhibitor NT used in brainstem and spinal column
What is Arousal Theory of Motivation?
Ppl behave in way that maintains an optimal level of physiological arousal.
What is Drive-reduction Theory of Motivation?
Unmet phys needs (access to water) creates a drive state (thirst) to motivate the animal to reduce the drive, and therefore satisfy the need (drink)
What is Instinct Theory?
Behaviors are motivated by instinctual and typical behaviors of a given species.
What is Incentive Theory of motivation?
Ppl behave to achieve a reward.; associates positive meaning with a behavior
What are taboos?
Worst thing you could ever do in society (murder)
What is Exchange-rational choice?
Theory focused on individuals' choice-making behavior in a utilitarian sense.
What is Functionalist theory?
Focuses on understanding society in term of functional components which all have to be in balance for society to exist.
What are the variable in a correlational study?
Correlational studies don't have independent and dependent variables. Instead they have predictor on x axis and criterion on y axis.
What is Gambler's fallacy?
"lucky streak" makes ppl think they have better chances at winning even though the probability doesn't change
Piaget's Stages of Development
(0-2) Sensorimotor (object permanence)
(2-7) Preoperational (speaking and pretend play)
(7-11) Concrete operational (Conservation and reasoning)
(12+) Formal operational (abstract logic)
What is a clinical study?
A highly controlled interventional study
What is a randomized controlled trial?
*gold standard clinical trial* People who are being studied are randomly given treatments under study to test efficacy/side effects of medical intervention (drugs)
What is internal validity?
Extent to which a CAUSAL conclusion can be made form a study (reduced by confounding variables)
What is external validity?
whether results of the study can be generalized to other situations and other people (sample must be random and situational variables tightly controlled)
What is construct validity?
whether a tool is measuring what is intended to measure
What is regression to the mean?
If first measurement is extreme, second measurement will be closer to the mean
What are confounding variables?
Changes in dependent variable may be due to existence of/ variation in a third variable
What are temporal confounds?
Time related confounding variables
What is Vehicular control?
What experimental group does without the directly desired impact
What is positive control?
Treatment with known response
What is negative control?
Group with no response expected
What is vehicular control?
A type of negative control where instead of giving the negative control group nothing you follow the same procedure just minus the variable of interest. (drug comes in saline --> give just saline to negative control group)
Social Movement: Mass Society Theory
Social movements that form from people seeking refuge from main society
"mass society" --> "Mass murder"
Nazism, Stalinism, Fascism
Social Movement: Relative Deprivation Theory
actions of groups that have been oppressed/deprived of rights
Social Movement: Resource Mobilization Theory
focuses on factors that help/hinder social movements like access to resources (money, material, political influence, charismatic leader (MLK and civil rights movement)
Social Movement: Rational Choice Theory
People weigh pros and cons and choose the course of action that would most benefit them
What is impression management?
The ACTIVE process of creating a specific impression of yourself to others.
Requires the research to directly participate in the social phenomena being studied
believe that racism is wrong but do not see racism as a significant institutional problem in society since 1960s
Jim crow racism
believe in institutional racism
people look for the most representative answer like if a person matches a prototype
can lead to conjunction fallacy- means co-occurence of two instances is more likely than a single one
using examples that come to ming (from memories) to make a decision
REM sleep is also called
brain activity similar to person in awake state
paralysis, increased respiration rate
What is the Expectancy-Value Theory of motivation?
Motivation is related to 2 primary factors:
1) the individual's perceived likelihood of success and 2) the relative value of the rewards associated with success
is involved in perceptions and experiences of primal emotions such as anger.
What are the two dimensions of emotion?
1) Arousal - the degree to which an emotion/experience is activated or deactivated.
2) Valence- the inherent attractiveness or aversiveness
What is Intersectionality?
Suggests that the interconnections between race, class, and gender create overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
What is miscegnation?
the mixing of racial and ethnic groups in intimate relationships
Which cell type is responsible for transduction of an auditory signal?
Inner hair cells of the cochlea are the sensory receptors for the human auditory system
What are the outer hair cells of the cochlea used for?
What are the hair cells of the semicircular canals for?
They transduce vestibular information about rotational acceleration.
What happens to your eyes when it is bright out?
Down regulation: Pupils constrict, less light hits the back of the eye, rods and cones become desensitized to light
What happens to your eyes when it is dark out?
Up regulation: Pupils dilate, more light hits the back of the eye, rods and cones start synthesizing light sensitive molecules
How do you calculate the Just Noticeable Difference?
What is Weber's Law?
delta I/I = k
linear relationship between incremental threshold and background intensity (delta I vs I is a constant)
Visual cues allow us to perceptually organize the following cues:
form, motion, constancy (monocular)
What is the difference between JND (difference threshold) and absolute threshold)?
JND= smallest difference that can be detected 50% of the time
Absolute= min intensity of stimulus needed to detect it 50% of the time (can be influenced by outside factors; state depended)
What is Bottom-up processing?
inductive reasoning; data driven; happens when you're looking at something you've never seen before
What is top-down processing?
deductive reasoning; theory driven; using background knowledge to deduce something based on what you already know
Gestalt principle of Similarity
brain groups items that are similar to each other
Gestalt principle of Pragnanz
reality organized to simplest shapes
Gestalt principle of proximity
objects close together are grouped together
Gestalt principle of continuity
lines are seen as following the smoothest path
Gestalt principle of closure
filling in missing information to form a whole
Gestalt principle of symmetry
mind perceives objects as being symmetrical and forming around a center point
Gestalt principle: Law of common fate
objects moving in the same path/ direction are grouped together
Gestalt principle: Law of past experiences
categorize visual stimuli based on past experiences
Gestalt principle: context effects
can establish the way stimuli are perceived/organized; can bias decisions but does not play into decision making process
outermost layer; curves light and focuses it on the retina at the back of the eye
dark space in the middle of the iris that lets light enter
gives your eye color; has a muscle that get smaller when there's a lot of light and bigger when there isn't much light
bends the light and specifically focus images on the back of your eye at the fovea
accommodation of lens
the lens gets flatter when you look far and wider when you look close
suspensory ligaments+ ciliary muscle --> secrete aqueous humor
area behind the iris to the back of the lens; filled with aqueous humor
filled with vitreous humor; nutrients and internal pressure
where the image is formed; filled with photoreceptors that converter physical waveform light to electrochemical impulse the brain can interpret
thin layer of cells that lines the inside of your eyelid from the eye
special part of the retina with LOTS of rods; some cones
special part of macula COMPLETELY CONES, no rods; great visual clarity
During daytime, light is focused on the
fovea, lots of cons to perceive color
During nightime, light is spread out to the
periphery of retina, covered in rods
6 mil, detect COLOR, details when there is light, shorter than rods
fast recovery time
120 mil, detect LIGHT (1000x more sensitive to light than cones), help us see at night, longer than cones (found in periphery of retina) ; 60^ R< 30% G, 10% B
slow recovery time (need time to turn off as eyes adjust to dark)
pigmented black in humans (black= absorbs all light), a network of BV that help nourish the retina
some animals have a different color choroid that gives them better night vision
white of the eye; covers 5/6th of the posterior eyeball (cornea covers anterior 1/6th of eyeball)
electrical activation of one neuron by another neuron
conscious sensory experience of neural processing
neural transformation of multiple signals into a perception
occurs whenever energy is transformed from one form to another (light energy is transformed to electrical energy in the visual sensory pathway)
What is the phototransduction cascade?
Light hits rods (which causes rod turns off) --> bipolar cell (turns on) --> retinal ganglion cell (turns on) --> optic nerve --> BRAIN.
process of rod turning from ON --> OFF
The opponent process theory of color vision states
you have cones that percieve 4 colors: red, blue, green and YELLOW
red and green oppose each other as do blue and yello and black and white
only one of the opponents in each pair can be seen at a time
occurs at high light levels
occurs at dawn or dusk and involves both rods and cones
occurs at levels of very low light
What is the visual pathway?
cornea--> pupil--> lens--> vitreous--> rods/cones--> bipolar cells--> ganglion cells --> optic nerve--> optic chiasm --> Lateral Geniculate nucleus (thalamus) --> visual radiations through the temporal and parietal lobes--> visucal cortex (occipital lobe)
need to break an object down to its component structures to make sense of what you are looking at. The 3 features to consider are:
1) Color-- trichromatic theory
2) Form -- shape of an object via the Parvocellular pathway (high spatial, low temporal)
3) Motion -- Magnocellular pathway (high temporal, low spatial)
pinna--> auditor canal--> tympanic membrane (eardrum) vibrates back and forth--> vibration of ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) --> oval window vibrates--> vibrates fluid through the Cochlea --> through the organ of corti over the hairs on the basilar membrane --> electrical impulse is sent to auditory nerve and fluid moves through round window
you are able to hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea's basilar membrane
How does the cochlea distinguish between sounds of varying frequency?
Basilar tuning = Hair cells at base (start of cochlea) are activated by HIGH frequency sounds and hair cells at apex (end of cochlea) are activated by low frequency sounds. Longer wavelength travels further.
map of your body in your brain
Gate control theory
non-painful input closes that gates to painful input which prevents pain sensation from traveling to the CNS
inability to perceive odor
Gustation- 5 main taste
bitter, salty, sweet, sour, umami (ability to taste glutamate)
What is the fastest route of drug entry
What is the most direct route of drug entry
reduction in the efficacy or responsiveness to a novel drug due to a common CNS target
VTA--> dopamine--> aymgdala, nucleus accumbus, hippocampus, septal nuclei (pleasure-seeking)
Cocktail party effect
ability to concentrate on one voice amongst a crowd or when someone calls your name (endogenous cue --> meaning of name draws attention?
distal stimuli vs. proximal stimuli
are objects and events out in the world about you vs. the patterns of stimuli that actually reach your sensory organs
orienting attention involves what neurotransmitter
executive attention involves what NT
monitors selective attention; you wear headphones and told to repeat everything said in one ear and ignore the other
Broadbent's Early Selection Theory
Sensory register --> selective filter --> perceptual process --> Conscious
Treisnman's Attenuation Theory
Sensory register --> attenuator --> perceptual process --> Conscious
Deutch & Deutch's Late Selection Theory
Sensory register --> perceptual process --> selective filter --> Conscious
Johnson and Heinz
you can change your attenuator based on demands of your environment
Activation Synthesis Hypothesis
dreams are a product of our brain trying to find meaning for random brain activity
dual coding hypothesis
it's easier to remember words associated with images than either one alone
method of loci
imagine moving through a familiar place and each room or object is a topic to be remembered
an implicit memory effect where expose to one stimulus influences the response to another stimulus
- caused by spreading activation -- the stimulus activates a memory/association just before carrying our the reponse
encoding strategy where we group info meaningful categories to help with memorization
Serial position curve
tend to remember first few (primacy) and last few (recency) items on a list in free recall
What cognitive ability improve with aging?
Semantic memory, crystallized IQ and emotional reasoning
What cognitive abilities remain stable with aging?
implicit memory, and recognition
ability to reason quickly and abstractly; tends to decrease as we age
accumulated knowledge and verbal skills that usually increases or stays the same into adulthood
Spearman's idea of general intelligence
single g factor responsible for intelligence that underlies performance on all cognitive tasks
Gardner's idea of 8 intelligences
differentiates intelligence into different modalities
Galton's idea of hereditary genius
human's ability is hereditary
Binet's idea of mental age
comparing how a child at a specific age performs intellectually compared to average intellectual performance for that physical age in years
Behaviorist Theory of Language (Skinner)
empiricist, language is just conditioned behavior learned through operant conditions
but this doesnt really explain how children produce words they've never hear before
Nativist theory language (Chomsky)
rationalist, language must be innate
born with the ability to learn it (Lang acquisition device)
critical period (birth - 9yo) most able to learn a language
Materialist theory of language
looks at what happens in the brain when people think/speak/write
Interactionist theory of language (Vygotsky)
bio and social factors interact in order for children to learn language + child's desire to communicate with adults
FRONTAL LOBE; Broca/expressive aphasia--> can't PRODUCE speech but understanding is unaffected
TEMPORAL LOBE; Wernicke's aphasia --> say words that don't make sense and cannot understand what other say; BUT can hear words and repeat them back
inability to write
inability to name things
left side for positive emotions; right side for negative emotions
executive controls: solve problems, make decision, hot to actin social situations
James Lange theory of emotion
1. NS response
2. conscious emotion
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
1. NS response and conscious emotion
Schachter-Singer theory of emotion
1. NS response and cognitive appraisal
2. Conscious emotion
Lazarus Theory of emotion
1. Cognitive appraisal of situation
2. NS response and conscious emotion
people perform optimally when they are moderately emotionally stimulated
Reticular activating system
controls arousal and alertness levels
What are the 3 phases of general adaptation syndrome?
1. Alarm (SNS kicks in in response to stress)
2. Resistance (fleeing, huddling, bathed in cortisol)
3. Exhaustion (if resistance isn't followed by recovery, we become susceptible to illness)
What brain areas atrophy due to chronic stress?
hippocampus and frontal cortex (have the most glucocorticoid receptors)
excitatory NT; Reticular activating system has diffuse projection of glutamate to the cerebral cortex
GABA (brain) and Glycine (spinal cord)
released by the Basilis and septal nuciei in frontal lobe for LMNs and ANS--> voluntary muscle control, parasymp NS, attention, alertness
sent from Hytpothalamus
released from the locus ceruleus in the pons; for ANS too
fight-or-flight response, wakefulness, alertness
released from the raphe nuclee in midbrain and medulla;
mood, sleep, eating, dreaming
released from the VTA and substantia nigra
smooth movements, postural stability
external, looks at sum of brain activity, used to asses seizures, sleep stages, cognitive tasks
*can't tell us about the activity of individual/grous of neurons
MEG (aka SQUIDS)
better resolution than EEG but rarer because requires a large machine and special room
can see blood flow to specific brain regions which tells you which brain regions are active
inject glucose into cells and see what areas of brain are more active at a give point in time
can't give detail of structure but can combine with CAT scans and MRIs
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
when our thoughts, attitudes and behaviors don't align; tend to reduce this discomfort by doing 4 tings:
1. Modify our cognitions
long term potentiation
after repeated stimulation, the presynaptic neuron will elicit a strong and stronger response in the post synaptic neuron ---> stronger synapse
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
ABC model of attitude
Affective (emotional); behavioral (how we behave towards object/subject); cognitive (thoughts/beliefs about the subject)
Prototype Willingness Model of Attitude
Behavior is a function of 6 things: past behavior, subjective norms, our intentions, our willingness to engage in a specific type of behavior, prototypes/models =(a lot of our behavior)
Elaboration Likelihood Model for Persuasion
attitudes form and change based on route of info processing & degree of elaboration
central route processing: depends on quality of arguments
peripheral route processing: depends on superficial details of persuasive cues
Foot in the door technique
ask for a small favor--> bigger favor --> even bigger favor;
how people get taken advantage of
changing attitude as a result of changing our behavior to fit a new role. Ex. Zimbardo's prison experiment
process of inferring causes of events/behaviors
Freud- Psychoanalytic theory
a person's personality is determined by a person's unconscious desires and past memories
2 instinctual drives motivate human behavior:
libido= motivation for survival, growth, pleasure
death instinct= drives aggressive behaviors fueled by unconscious wish to die or hurt oneself/others
projecting own feelings of inadequacy on another
defense mechanism where someone says/does exact opposite of what they actually want/feel
defense mechanism where you regress into a child in stressful situation
defense mechanism where unwanted impulses are transformed into something less harmful
example of a mental conflict. Ex: financially stressed patient say "please don't give me any bills" whey they meant pills
Humanistic theory (Carl Rogers)
says people are inherently good; focuses on the conscious and how we are self-motivated to improve so we can reach self-actualization
Genuine (in our values) + acceptance (by others)= self-concept
Hans Eysenck's Biological Theory of Behavior
extroversion level is based on reticular formation - introverts are more easily aroused and therefore require less
Jeffrey Alan Gray Biological Theory of Behavior
personality is governed by 3 brain systems (like fight-or-flight)
C. Robert Cloninger Biological theory of Behavior
linked personality to brain systems in reward/motivation/punishment (dopamine correlated with higher impulsivity)
we start as blank states and the environment completely determines our behavior; focuses on observable and measurable behavior rather than mental/emotional behaviors
Gordon Allport's 3 basic categories of traits
cardinal (dominant, influence all of our behaviors)
central (general trait)
we all have unique subsets
proposed we all had 16 essential personality traits --> turn this into a 16 personality factor questionnaire (16 PF)
Hans Eysenk 3 major dimensions of personality
2. Neuroticism (emotional instability)
3. Psychoticism (degree to which reality is distorted)
we all have these traits but just express them at different degrees (different then Allport)
5 Factor Model (Big 5)
disability due to abnormality in development of NS; includes intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and ADHD
delirium (reversible), dementia (irreversible)
abnormal worry/fear; general or specific (phobia); panic disorder involves panic attacks
Bipolar and related disorder
abnormal mood; have manic/hypomanic episodes
Schizophrenia Spectrum and other Psychotic Disorders
distress/disability from psychosis (delusion/hallucinations)
Personality Disorders: 3 Clusters
B: intense emotional/ relationship problems
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
distress/disability from bodily symptoms that have no physiological origin and are unrelated to a mental disorder (ex: stomach pain from stress)
urination/defecation at inappropriate times
group decision making amplifies the original opinion of group members
views don't have equal influence, majority rules
suppressing your own opinions to maintain harmony among group members; reduces how analytical you in problem solving
breakdown of social bonds between an individual and community
Normative Social Influence
Conforming to social norms to gain resect/support of peers; go with group outwardly, but intenrally believe something different
Informational Social Influence
Conforming because we feel like others know more than us
Asch Conformity Studies
social acts have be understood in their setting, and lose meaning if isolated; human behavior must be understood as a whole
The presence of others will produce the most dominant response i.e. the response most likely to occur
Presence of others increases your arousal --> increase likelihood of dominant response.
Presence of other improves performance on simple tasks; hinders performance on difficult tasks