Behavioral Science: Development 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Behavioral Science: Development 1 & 2 Deck (38):

Definitions of premature birth, very premature birth

premature =


APGAR score

A- appearance (color)
P- pulse
G- grimace
A- activity (muscle tone)
R- respiration

Used to predict likelihood of immediate survival


US birth outcomes

High rate of premature births, so high infant mortality rate compared to other developed countries
Low income --> premature births + infant mortality


Baby blues

exaggerated emotionality and tearfulness for a few days after birth


post-partum depression

Major Depression that occurs in up to 10% of new mothers within 1 month of childbirth, can persist for up to 1 year


What direction do babies develop?

Cephalad to caudad, central to peripheral
- self to others, understanding to expressing


What happens from infancy to 18 mos?

- Humans need and seek the presence of others
- Attachment
- Social smile at 12 weeks
- Stranger anxiety at 9 months
- Separation anxiety late in first year, object permanence comes first


Importance of attachment

- psychoimmunology
- resulted in the concept of foster families


Infant reflexes

Rooting: touch cheek, turns toward nip
Palmar Grasp: grips any object put in palm
Moro: limbs extend when startles
Babinski: dorsiflexion of toes when sole of foot stroked (until 1 yr)


Milestones from 18 months to age 5

Rapprochment: moves away but quickly returns for comfort
Age 2: "NO"
Age 3: can spend a few hours away from mom, gender identity
Age 4: Bowel function
Age 5: bladder function


Preschool child (ages 3-6)

Sibling rivalry, regression.
- Between 2-4 vocabulary increases a shit ton
- Active fantasy life, knows that imaginary friends aren't real
- Cooperative play at 4 years
- Strong fear of bodily injury
- Curiosity about bodies


6 year old milestones

- development of conscience (superego)
- morality, empathy, right vs. wrong, finality of death


Autism Spectrum Disorders

- don't acquire verbal and social skills at expected age
- seen before age 3
- no finger pointing (theory of mind)
- 50% have intellectual impairment
- more common in boys
- larger head circumference
- genetic component (associated w/ tuberous sclerosis and Fragile X)


Rett's Disorder

4 years of normal functioning -->
hand wringing, breathing problems, intellectual impairment, ataxia, motor and social decline
- X linked


Childhood Disintegrative Disorder age

2-10 years of normal development


School age (7-11) and adolescence

- psychosexual issues dormant
- industry vs inferiority
- lifelong sense of competence
- concrete operations
-learning problems identified


School age (7-11) peer relationships

- relationships with adults other than primary caregiver
- same sex peer relationships
- not fitting in
- sexual latency, identifying with same sex parent
- morality, rule conscious (by 12 more flexible)
- more complex tasks (team sports)
- better at dealing with illness and hospitalization
- acting out as defense mechanism
- age 9: universality of death


Changes to brain during adolescence (11-20)

- frontal and parietal lobes
-pruning of up to 50% of synaptic connections, decline in glucose and oxygen metabolism


Puberty milestones

10.5 in girls, 11.5 in boys
- first menstruation 11-14
- first ejaculation 12-15
- complete by 13.5 in girls, 15 in males


Factors the predispose to teen pregnancy

1. depression
2. poor school achievement
3. divorced parents


Down syndrome

- single palmar transverse crease, protruding tongue, flat facies, hypotonia, epicanthal folds, small ears, thick neck, premature aging and Alzheimer's disease


Fragile X Syndrome

Affects males more severely
- delayed cognitive function, hyperactive, hand flapping, hyperextensible joints, large ears, elongated face, postpubertal enlargement of testes


Phonological disorders

Leaves out or misplaces speech sounds, ie "ca" for cat, "top" for stop


Articulation disorders

Unable to make necessary motor movements for accurate speech production, ie lisping


Tourette's disorder

Involuntary, before age 18
- OCD/ ADHD/ dopamine
- treat w/ dopamine blocking agents


Factors that increase risk of divorce

- Short courtship, teenagers, premarital pregnancy, absence of family support, prior divorce in family, difference in religion/SES, couples w/ seriously ill children
- Risk higher when one spouse is physician (female, married prior to med school, psychiatry)


Single Parent Family trends

highest to lowest: black, hispanic, white
- increased risk of physical and mental illness
- parent divorce: child at higher risk for school failure, depression, drug abuse, suicide, crime, divorce themselves


Types of child custody

Sole custody: child lives with one parent who has legal responsibility for the child, other parent contributes to financial support

Joint custody: time split between both parents

Split custody: Each parent has custody of at least 1 child in the family


Early adulthood (20-40)

age 30: role in society is defined, physical development at peak, individual is independent
- love and work/ intimacy vs isolation
- women often change paths in middle 30s
- adopt parental values after years of rebellion


Middle adulthood (40-65)

Good health, money, power, authority
- "Sandwich generation" - responsibilities to older and younger relatives
- More life behind than ahead --> midlife crisis
- Climacterium: the physiological changes that occur during midlife


Losses of aging

- Social status, death of spouses and friends, decline in health
- ego integrity vs despair, pride vs wasted life


Cognitive function in the elderly

Dementia in less than 10% of elderly
- over age 85, 1/2 have cognitive impairment


PHysical and neurological changes of aging

- decreased cerebral blood flow, brain weight, formation of amyloid plaques
- intelligence is same
- decreased neurotransmitter availability
- more sensitive to side effects, increased depression


Psychosocial changes of aging

- reduced bladder control, loss of strength, vision and hearing loss, elder abuse


Psychopathology in old people

- depression, suicide, anxiety, alcohol + substance abuse, delirium


Stages of dying

Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance

not necessarily in that order


Normal grief vs complicated bereavement

- both have initial shock and denial
- denial in abnormal grief can be days to weeks
- both include sadness, crying. normal grief can subside in 1-2 years
- anniversary rxns common
- abnormal grief --> symptoms intensify instead of lessening, suicidal thinking or hallucinations
- cultural differences


Role of physician in death and dying

- make aware of dx and prognosis
- reassurance
- serve as resource to family
- medically follow bereaved family members
- resist emotional attachment