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Flashcards in Behaviour Deck (19):
1

ethogram

-formal description of species behavioural repertoire
-may list all behaviours or particular functional classes

2

time budget of mountain wild horse

over 50% eating, 20% resting

3

Resting

-leaning against one another
-standing w/ weight on alternating legs
-lying down

4

maintenance behaviour

grooming
comfort
standing alert
elimination

5

Rolling

grooming
play
sign of colic

6

social behaviours

harem social: mare group
herding: stallion grouping mares
harem tending: guarding mares

7

stud pile

bachelor group with excrete in a pile to mark territory/attract mates

8

stallion reproductive behaviour

-tending
-vocalization and flehmen response (sense reproductive state of females based on pheremones)
-rubbing head/chin rest on flanks of mare and extend penis
-copulation

9

mare reproductive sequence

-presents self facing away from stallion, lifting tail, and vocalizing
-psturing her hind legs apart and head facing posterior
-emit small streams of urine and 'winking' of vulva
-urine of mares in estrous consists of pheremones for chemical communication

10

agonism

males only, females only, or between both

11

types of agonisms

threat (arched neck or head up/ears back)
-bump/push
-chasing
-kicking and biting
-circling

12

male-male only agonisms

rearing, stomping and striking, boxing and dancing

13

submission

head down, facing away

14

play behaviour

-modified form of serious survival activities, distinguished by the intent
-aides in muscle and cardio fitness, practice survival skills, gaining familiarity with environment
-building social and communication skills

15

types of play

object play, locomotor play, sexual play, play fighting

16

object play

circling around others or objects
pawing-investigative
-pulling, objects or other horses' tails
-resting rear-lie on mare
-kick up, no actual attempt at harm

17

locomotor play

frolic
leap
buck
prance

18

play fighting

-initiated by head threat tossing motion
-head/neck/chest nip, bit or grasping
-neck wrestling
-fore leg nip/bite/grasp
-rump nip or bite
-pushing
-stamping, rearing, hind quarter threat, kicking
-evasive behaviour

19

play sexual behaviour

-common in foals and young adolescents of both sexes, as well as young and bachelor stallions
-pre-copulatory and copulatory behaviour sequences may be out of order or exaggerrated when playing
-elimination marking
-teasing of head, shoulder, flank, tail, genitals, etc of another horse
-mounting