Flashcards in BEHP5012 Unit 1 A Deck (35):
Define the term Motivating Operations
An antecedent condition that alters the effectiveness of a consequence and has a momentary effect on a dimension of behavior
What type of value-altering effect does an Establishing Operation have?
Increases effectiveness of consequence
What type of effect does an abolishing operation have on a consequence (either reinforcement or punishment)?
It decreases the value of the consequence
MOs are broadly classified based on whether their value-altering effect is:
Of phylogenic or ontogenic provenance
Name the four categories of MOs as related to provenance of the value-altering effect
UEO, UAO, CEO, CAO -Provenance refers to whether the MO is learned or unlearned- conditioned or unconditioned- phylogenic provenance or ontogenic provenance
Which of the following terms would fall into one of the eight categorical division (without regard to division by provenance), which define an MO according to the type of consequence to which it is related (the consequence having its value altered).
Classifying a motivating operation by its last name means classifying it according to:
The consequence to which it is directly related
Select two effects of EOs related to reinforcement
Reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects
When an antecedent stimulus decreases the effectiveness of a consequence's strengthening effect of behavior, a(n) ___ effect occred.
When an antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus decreases the likelihood of the occurrence of behavior that has been reinforced in the paso, a(n) ___ effect can be said to have taken place.
An antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus can increase the value of other events as forms of reinforcement. This is referred to as a(n) ___ effect. In addition, the same antecedent can evoke the type of behavior that has been reinforced by particular consequential events in the past. This is referred to as a(n)___ effect.
Seeing that the battery is low on a lap top computer increases the value of a charger, and evokes the type of behavior that has resulted in getting a charger in the past. Which type of motivating operation does this exemplify?
Establishing operation for reinforcement
Being indoors when it is dark and warm decreases the value of wearing a hat, and abates looking for one. Which type of motivating operation does this scenario illustrate?
Abolishing operation for reinforcement
When an antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus increases the value of other events as forms of punishment, a(n) ___ effect can be said to have taken place.
An antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus can increase the value of consequential events as forms of punishment. This is referred to as a(n) ___ effect. In addition, the same antecedent can reduce the likelihood of the type of behavior that has been punished by those consequences in the past. This is referred to as a(n)___ effect.
Select two effects of AOs related to punishment:
Punisher-abolishing and evocative effects
Derek earns about $23,000 per year. Early in his employment, he was suspended from work for two days without pay, due to his calling-in absent from work 3 times without a properly documented excuse. He was told that if it happened again within the year, he would be suspended for a full week, and if it occurred a third time, he would be fired. He has a lot of debt from school, and cannot afford to lose any more pay—and in fact is constantly looking for overtime to increase his paycheck. Thus the suspension was very effective, and Derek has not called in absent from work in over 6 months. On Monday morning, Derek received a letter in the mail indicating that his great-uncle Scooter had died and left him more than $500,000 as an inheritance. The next day, Derek was out celebrating, and he called in absent from work that day “due to family issues”. What effect did the letter about his inheritance have on the effectiveness of suspension for “calling in absent to work”? The letter functioned as an…
Abolishing operation for punishment
Charlie hears that a movie he has been waiting for (for months) is finally coming out on Friday night. This increases the value of getting grounded by his parents (forced to stay home – except for school – for a certain period of time). It also abates the type of behavior that has resulted in Charlie getting grounded in the past. Which type of motivating operations does Charlie’s hearing that there is a good movie coming out illustrate?
Establishing operation for punishment
Conditioned motivating operations (CMOs) alter the effectiveness of consequences due to:
Which of the following is not a conditioned motivating operation?
Surrogate motivating operations (CMO-S) acquire the properties of an MO through:
Contingent pairing with other MOs
Humphrey smokes cigarettes. He is trying to quit, but is having trouble. Whenever he sees someone on TV light up a cigarette (in an old Bogart movie for example), he begins craving a cigarette and usually goes to get one. In terms of Humphrey’s going to get a cigarette behavior, seeing others smoke on TV most likely functions as a(n):
Conditioned establishing operation-surrogate type
Which of the following is true of a transitive conditioned establishing operation (CEO-T)?
Establishes a second stimulus as a reinforcer
Bob’s new Acme cell phone did not have its own SIM card. Bob’s old Banana brand cell phone has a perfectly good SIM card, but it can only be removed (and thus made available for the Acme phone) by using a special SIM Card Removal Tool designed specifically for the Banana phone. Bob has the tool – someplace – and finally finds it in his lower desk drawer. He removes the SIM card from his old Banana phone, and places it in his new Acme phone. The empty slot on the Acme phone established the SIM card as a conditioned reinforcer, but in relation to the SIM Card Removal Tool (which is obtained as a consequence for searching behavior), the SIM card being stuck in the old Banana brand phone functioned as a(n)>
This type of CMO establishes its own termination as an effective form of negative reinforcement or punishment
Mack Heath invites three of his friends over his house to play Sharkbite, a 4-Player videogame. Lotte and Lucy remember to bring their controllers, but Suki forgets to bring hers. The game can only be played with 4 players, each with their own controller. Suki runs home (across the street) to get her controller. In relation to the value of Suki’s controller, the 4 players ready to play with the game all set to go, but only 3 controllers present, functions as a:
A CMO-reflexive type can have which of the following effects
Establishes its own termination as a form of negative reinforcement
Minnie applies mosquito repellant spray before she enters the camp site. Manny did not – and he is bitten by many mosquitos. He then applies an ointment which has provided some relief from the itchiness caused by the multiple bites. Minnie’s applying the mosquito repellant before camp is an example of X, and Manny’s applying the ointment to relieve the itchiness caused by the mosquito bites is an example of Y.
The brand new weather app on Carole’s smart phone is set to alert her about the current temperature every morning at 6AM. Upon seeing that the high for the day was 39° F she grabbed her favorite wool coat as she does not like to be cold. This is most likely an example of:
Rob and Ian are at a Rush concert. Many signs expressly prohibit the use of video cameras during the concert. Ian, who has been to many concerts, watches the security guards circulate for a while, and then in flagrant disregard of the rules, begins to video the band’s performance of their hit, Free Will. If he gets caught by security, he will be kicked out of the concert. After taping for about 8 minutes, Ian puts away his smart phone-video camera, even though he has not seen a single security guard in his section for several minutes. This is most likely an example of:
Negative reinforcement requires that a(n) X stimulus exists which functions as a(n) Y for escape or avoidance.
X= antecedent Y=EO
Discriminated avoidance is not a good term because the antecedent conditioned aversive stimulus, which evokes the avoidance response, is actually a(n):
EO (for negative reinforcement)
Tom and Kathy are at Plum Island beach in New England in August. Tom has experienced biting deer flies at this beach this time of year, so he has put on insect repellent, but Kathy does not like those chemicals on her skin, so she does not use repellant. While at the beach, Tom is not bothered by flies, but Kathy is bitten several times, so soon whenever she sees one flying around, she swats it away. Later that night, Tom shows Kathy pictures of their trip to the beach, and Kathy starts to scratch her arms. In terms of Kathy’s swatting away the flies at the beach behavior, how does a hovering fly function?
Kathy was bitten on the arm by the deer flies several times while at the beach, which evoked her scratching her arms where the flies bit her. She eventually began swatting flies away before they bit her. Later, looking at the pictures of the beach while she was at home evoked her scratching her arms. In terms of scratching her arms at the beach, the actual fly bites functioned as a X , while in terms of scratching her arms at home later that night, the pictures of the beach functioned as a Y .
X=UEO for escape Y=CEO-S