BEHP5012 Unit 1 B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BEHP5012 Unit 1 B Deck (35):
1

An antecedent condition that alters the effectiveness of a consequence and has a momentary effect on a dimension of behavior is called a:

Motivating Operation

2

What are the two value-altering effects of motivating operations?

Establishing and Abolishing Effects

3

What type of value-altering effect does an Establishing Operation have?

Increases effectiveness of consequence

4

The specific behavior-altering effect of a specific motivating operation (either an EO or an AO) depends on whether that MO is:

Related to reinforcement or punishment

5

MOs can be broadly classified based on whether their value-altering effect is:

Conditioned or unconditioned

6

Which is NOT one of the eight types of motivating operations which alters the value of a specific type of unconditioned consequence?

AOsr it needs to be AOsr+

7

When an antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus increases the value of other events as forms of reinforcement, a(n) __ effect can be said to have taken place.

Reinforcer-establishing

8

Select two effects of AOs related to reinforcement

Reinforcer-abolishing and ablative effects

9

Having blurry vision increases the value of corrective lenses (eyeglasses) and evokes behavior that has resulted in obtaining glasses in the past. In terms of obtaining glasses, blurry vision functions as which type of MO?

Establishing operation for reinforcement

10

When an antecedent stimulus increases the likelihood of the occurrence of the behavior which has been reinforced by a particular consequence in the pas, a(n) __ effect can be said to have taken place

Evocative

11

Which of the following are effects of EOs related to punishment?

Punisher-establishing and ablative effects

12

When an antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus increases the likelihood of occurrence of behavior that has been punished by particular events in the past, a(n) __ effect may be said to have taken place

Evocative

13

Winning the lottery decreases the effectiveness of traffic tickets (as consequences which weaken speeding behavior over time). Winning the lottery can thereby make speeding behavior more likely. In terms of speeding behavior and getting a ticket, winning the lottery functions as an:

Abolishing operation for punishment

14

Zippy has lost a great deal of the enamel on his teeth due to acid reflux. Thus his teeth are extremely sensitive to hot – and especially cold— food. The lack of tooth enamel increases the value (effectiveness) of icy cold foods (like ice cream) as a type of consequence, and thereby abates Zippy’s eating of especially cold foods. What type of motivating operation is the reduced enamel on Zippy’s teeth in terms of the effect of icy cold food?

Establishing operation for punishment

15

Conditioned motivating operations (CMOs) alter the effectiveness of consequences as a result of:

The individual's learning history

16

Which of the following are the effects of AOs related to punishment? Punisher-abolishing effects and

Evocative effects

17

Conditioned motivating operations:

Surrogate, reflexive, and transitive

18

Surrogate motivating operations acquire the properties of an MO through pairing with other:

Motivating operations

19

Michael watches the news on TV while his wife cooks dinner at the end of the day. Now that he is retired, he starts watching the news on TV at different times of the day. He notices that every time he watches the news he gets a “craving” to get something to eat. In this scenario, the news reports on the TV function as a(n):

CEO-S

20

In the behavioral literature, as presented by Jose in this unit’s video, the CMO-Transitive type is discussed and analyzed exclusively in terms of its effect on which of the following?

Positive reinforcement only

21

Jack Michael (both in his chapter in the Cooper, Heron, and Heward’s Applied Behavior Analysis 2nd edition text, and in his most recent Concepts and Principles text – the red soft cover text book) discusses three types of conditioned motivating operations – surrogate, reflexive, and transitive . He clearly states that, despite the strong support of reasoned conceptual analysis, very limited if any experimental evidence exists in the behavioral literature demonstrating the existence of the following type(s) of CMO:

surrogate

22

Jack Michael defined this type of antecedent as: “An event [e.g., stimulus] which establishes another stimulus as a necessary condition to complete the response that the first event [stimulus] evokes—and thus establishes that second stimulus as a reinforcer”. In other words, what is the term for an antecedent stimulus, which establishes another stimulus as a reinforcer, because the second stimulus is needed to complete an action made necessary by the sudden presence (onset) of that first antecedent stimulus?

Transitive CEO

23

Holly sets up a series of contrived discrete trials in the natural environment for Jeremy (an 8-year old boy with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder). In one such trial, Jeremy’s favorite food, cream of tomato soup, is served for lunch. The table setting has a bowl of soup, crackers, a napkin, fork, knife, and glass of water (which is Jeremy’s preferred drink when he eats creamy soup). The full bowl of soup and the fact that Jeremy has not eaten for several hours both combine to set the occasion for Jeremy to ask for the missing spoon. If he does not mand, Holly says, “Jeremy, here is you lunch. Now is there anything you need me to get for you?” When Jeremy says, “Spoon” Holly says, “Oh of course! Here you go” and hands him a spoon. In terms of Jeremy’s behavior, the immediate presentation of the spoon following his saying, “spoon” as a mand functions as a(n) __________?

Conditioned positive reinforcer

24

Mr. Smith wants to reward his employees for a perfect annual review by throwing them an ice cream party. He set up an ice cream station, displaying many types of ice cream, toppings and syrups. Patti, an employee, arrives and attempts to make a sundae, but cannot because Mr. Smith never obtained an ice cream scoop. Patti smiles and goes downstairs to the kitchen area to get a scoop or large spoon. In terms of the value of the scoop/large spoon, the presence of all the ingredients to make a sundae with no scoop for the ice cream, functioned as a(n):

Transitive EO

25

A CEO-R (threat type), can have which of the following effects
X = establishes its own removal as a form of reinforcement
Y = establishes a different stimulus as a form of reinforcement
Z = evokes behavior that results in its own removal

X and Z only

26

Which two (of the following four options) are appropriately paired together?
W = Threat CEO-R
X = Promise CEO-R
Y = Correlated with improving conditions
Z = Correlated with worsening conditions

W and Z

27

Eddy lives in a dual-diagnosis mental-health group home. His skin is very sensitive, especially to very hot water. Roxanne, an evening staff person, asks Eddy to take his evening shower. Eddy immediately kicks Roxanne in the shins and she hobbles away, and Eddy does not have to take his evening shower. Over time, Eddie continues to kick Roxanne when she prompts him to take a shower. Eddy kicking Roxanne, which results in the removal of the demand to take a shower, is most likely an example of:

Avoidance

28

As Tamiko cuts Matthew’s nails, he is cooperative for about 5 minutes, and she is able to finish his right hand just as he begins to whine. “That’s all for now” she says. Later that day, when she begins to lift his left hand to cut his nails, before she begins to cut, he screams “NO!” and bites her. Immediately, she stands up and moves quickly away from him. She stops trying to cut the nails of his left hand. Matthew (as the behaver), screaming and biting Tamiko, which results in the nails of his left hand not beginning to be trimmed, is an example of ______ ; Tamiko (as the behaver) standing up and moving away, immediately upon being bitten, is an example of _____.

Avoidance, escape

29

Dom, who lives in a group home, does not like going to the doctor due to a past history of unpleasant and sometimes painful experiences in medical environments. Carole informs Dom that they will have to leave for a doctor’s appointment in a half hour. Upon hearing this, Dom runs out the front door while yelling obscenities at Carole. As a result, they miss the doctor’s appointment. Dom’s behavior is an example of:

Signaled avoidance

30

Julian works in an office where everyone is partitioned into workspace cubicles. Every half hour or so, the floor manager walks the floor to check on all the workers. The partitions make it impossible to see if the manager is approaching. Julian plays a lot of games on his cell phone. He spends a lot of work time doing this. Every 20 minutes or so, he puts his cell phone away, waits for the manager to pass by, and then goes back to playing on his phone for another 20 minutes or so. Julian’s putting his phone away every 20 minutes or so is an example of :

Unsignaled avoidance

31

An antecedent stimulus establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement. What is the antecedent stimulus, and what type of reinforcement does this describe?

EO; Negative

32

In “discriminated” avoidance, the warning stimulus functions as an

EO

33

After a long day at the beach, Kathy and Tom come home. It was a cloudy day, so Tom never put on sunscreen, and is sunburned. Kathy did wear sunscreen so does not have a sunburn. Tom’s skin begins to sting, and he begins to whine about it. Kathy does not want to listen to him whine anymore, so she puts some aloe gel on Tom’s back, which makes the stinging go away and he stops whining. In terms of Kathy putting the aloe gel on Tom’s back, how did Tom whining function?

CEO-R

34

Tom’s sunburn evoked his whining, and eventually Kathy put aloe on his back to get him to stop whining. In terms of Tom’s whining behavior (which resulted in Kathy putting aloe on his back), how did the feeling of having sunburned skin function?

UEO for negative reinforcement

35

A time-in condition is necessary for a time-out to be effective as punishment. Time-in reduces the likelihood of behavior which would result in a person losing access to that time-in setting, and missing all the great things still to come! Thus time-in functions as a(n) X which establishes the its own termination as a form of Y , and abates behavior that would result in its own termination.

X = CEO-R (promise) Y = Negative punishment