Flashcards in Benign Breast Disease Deck (44):
What is juvenile hypertrophy?
breasts become excessively large
What is the believed cause of juvenile hypertrophy?
increased histologic sensitivity to hormones that stimulate progressive growth within the breast tissue
What is micromastia/breast hypoplasia?
post pubertal underdevelopment of breast tissue
What is accessory breast tissue or an accessory nipple and where can it develop?
extra breast tissue/ nipple present anywhere along the embryological mammary streak
Where is the mammary streak?
axilla to inguinal region
What is a neoplasm?
abnormal growth/proliferation of tissue usually following an abnormal pattern of growth
What is metaplasia?
abnormal pattern of growth
reversible transformation of one differentiated cell type into another differentiated cell type
What is dysplasia?
abnormal pattern of growth
abnormal cell growth
What is hypertrophy?
increase in volume of cells
What is hyperplasia?
increase in cell number
What is gynaecomastia and the pathology?
breast growth in males
duct growth without lobular development (no milk production by breast tissue growth)
What is fibrocystic change?
smooth and discrete non cancerous breast lumps that may cause discomfort cyclically with menstrual cycle
seen in one or both breasts
lumpy cobblestone texture or free moving smooth lumps?
What is a harmatoma?
painless soft lump causing unilateral breast enlargement
benign proliferation of fibrous glandular and fatty tissue in the breast surrounded by a thin capsule of connective tissue (fibroadenlipoma)
breast within a breast?
What are the key differences between fibroadenoma and harmatoma?
harmatomass are slightly larger and softer and well defined with patches of yellow fat tissue
What is a fibroadenoma?
benign proliferation of fibrous and glandular tissue (stromal and epithelial cells)
Who commonly presents with fibroadenomas?
young pubertal women
What is the presentation of fibroadenoma?
painless firm discrete smooth rubbery mass that moves easily
What are fibromas?
benign tumours composed of fibrous or connective tissue
What are adenomas?
benign tumours composed of glandular tissue
What are lipomas?
benign tumours composed of fatty tissue
What are the four main types of tissue in the body?
What is sclerosis of the breast?
an area of hardened tissue commonly occurring as the breast ages
What 2 benign breast conditions have sclerosis?
radial scar/complex sclerosing lesions
What is sclerosing adenosis?
extra growth of tissue within breast lobules can be a tender lump or area of thickening
common in older women normally asymptomatic and picked up on mammogram screening
Why are biopsies needed for sclerosing lesions and what treatment measures can be taken?
sclerosis can mimic breast Ca so biopsy is needed to make a firm diagnosis
sometimes excision biopsy or vacuum assisted to remove
What are radial scars/ complex sclerosing lesions?
radial scars <1cm
areas of hardened tissue/sclerosis that look like scars
What is fat necrosis?
enzymatic degradation of fat tissue in the breast following trauma
subsequent scarring and calcification
What is a phyllodes tumour?
unilateral breast mass of stromal tissue seen in >40s
benign with malignant potential
What conditions can cause sub areaolar calcification?
What is the process that happens in fat necrosis?
damage and disruption of adipocytes
infiltration of inflammatory cells (foamy/giant cells and macrophages)
enzymatic fat digestion causing necrosis with subsequent fibrosis and scarring
What signs are seen in biopsy to indicate fat necrosis?
necrotic fat with calcification and giant cells
What is periductal mastitis?
inflammation of the subareolar ducts
Why do individuals who smoke have an increased likely hood of getting duct ectasia thus periductal mastitis?
smokers have lower levels of vit A which is essential to maintain the specialised epithelium of the lactiferous ducts
What is mammary duct ectasia?
lactiferous ducts shorten and widen as the breast ages (common in >45)
duct walls thicken and thick secretions can collect in the duct
can cause no problems
What can duct ectasia lead to and how?
accumulation of fluid in the widened duct can clog the duct leading to infection and inflammation
leading to periductal fibrosis and scarring
What are the classic symptoms for periducatal mastitis?
subareolar mass (fibrosis from inflammation)
green/brown nipple discharge
pain and inflammation
What are the common causes of mastitis?
milk stasis in breastfeeding
infection from a damaged nipple
What are the common organsims causing mastitis from lactation?