beta-lactam inhibitors - cephalosporin Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in beta-lactam inhibitors - cephalosporin Deck (32):
1

 Derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid
 Contain the beta-lactam ring structure

cephalosporin

2

RoA for cephalosporin

several drugs are available for oral use but most are administered PARENTERALLY

3

 Cephalosporins with side chains undergo

hepatic metabolism

4

Major elimination of Cephalosporins is via

renal tubular excretion

5

Excreted mainly in the bile (2)

Cefoperazone and ceftriaxone (3rd generation)

6


Do not enter the CSF when the meninges are inflamed

1st- and 2nd-generation

7

MoA of cephalosporin

 Bind to PBPs on bacterial cell membranes to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis
Mechanism same to penicillin

8

are penicillin and cephalosporin bactericidal?

Yes

9

effect of structural differences from penicillin

Less susceptible to penicillinases produced by staphylococci

10

resistance to cephalosporin is developed through

production of other beta-lactamases
Decrease membrane permeability to the drug
Changes in PBPs

11

MRSA is resistant to which drugs

methicillin
penicillin
cephalosporin

12

1st gen drug given IV

cefazolin

13

1st gen drug given orally

cephalexine

14

1st gen drugs are used against

 Gram (+) cocci
 Staphylococci
 Streptococci
 E. coli
 K. pneumoniae

15

what gen drugs are used for Surgical prophylaxis in selected conditions

1st

16

what gen drugs have Minimal activity
 Gram (-) cocci
 Enteroccoci
 MRSA
 Most gram (-) rods

1st

17

what gen drugs
 Less activity against gram (+)
 Extended coverage for gram (-)

SECOND-GENERATION DRUGS

18

B. fragilis

Cefofetan, cefoxitin

19

H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis

Cefamandole, cefuroxime, cefaclor

20


 Increased activity against gram (-) organisms resistant to other beta-lactam drugs
 Ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier

3rd gen drugs
Ceftazidime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime

21

active against
 Providencia
 S. marcescens
 Beta-lactamase producing strains
 H. influenzae
 Neisseria

3rd gen drugs
Ceftazidime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime

22

 Less active against enterobacter strains that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases

3rd gen drugs
Ceftazidime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime

23

Drug of choice for gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone (IV) and cefixime

24

 More resistant to beta-lactamases produced by gram (-) organisms
 Enterobacter
 Haemophilus
 Neisseria
 Some penicillinase-resistant pneumococci
 Combines the gram (+) activity of 1st gen and wider gram (-) spectrum of 3rd gen

FOURTH-GENERATION DRUGS
Cefepime

25

toxicity of cephalosporin

allergy and other adverse effects

26

1. Allergic reactions manifested as

skin rashes to anaphylactic shock

27

Occurs less frequently than penicillins

allergic rxns

28

cross-hypersensitivity (C or INC)

complete

29

cross-reactivity (C or INC)

incomple

30

 Those with history of ___________ should not be treated with cephalosporin

anaphylaxis to penicillin

31

2. Other adverse effects

 Pain at IM injection site
 Phlebitis after IV injection
 Increase nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides

32

 Drugs containing a methlythiotetrazole group
 Cefamandole, cefoperazone, cefofetan
 May cause ????
 Disulfiram-like reactions with ethanol

hypoprothrombinemia

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