Betty Burns Bone Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Betty Burns Bone Deck (18):
1

Bone - Characteristics

Mineralized
Vascularized
Nerve Supply
Dynamic
Interactive

2

Types of Bone (+)

Trabecular (spongy, alveolar, cancellous - synonyms)
Compact (lamellar, haversian or cortical - synonyms)

3

When Bone Fractured - steps

Hemotoma -> Fibrocartiligous callus (soft) -> Bony Callus (Hard) -> Bone Remodeling

4

Soft Callus formation

new blood vessels formed within hematoma
Spongy bone trabeculae formed
Cells enter hematoma

5

Possible Sources of back pain

Vertebral Joints
--Synovial joints are innervated
Nerves
--Impingement : Spinal nerve very close to disks as well as other things

6

Epidural Space

External to dura
can be used for childbirth and pain
lower back, and neck, +

7

Lumbar Puncture - where on spine

Subarachnoid space

8

Central Cord Compression - causes

Metastatic Cancer (common), Herniated Disc, Spinal stenosis, etc

9

Central Cord Compression - action

Lesion pushing directly on spinal cord
EMERGENCY b/c central spinal cord doesn't really regenerate

10

Central Cord Compression - result

pain, sensory disturbance (not necesarily dermatomal), weakness, hyperflexia

11

Cauda Equina Syndrome - effect

compression of cauda equina/nerve roots (L1 and lower)
leg weakness and pain - weak plantar flexion
diminished Achilles reflex
Saddle Anesthesia (S)
Bowel and Bladder Dysfunction
Acute Sexual Dysfunction

12

Osteoporosis - def

Decreased bone mass per volume (bone density)
OC>OB

13

Classic osteoporosis effects

spinal compression fracture
hip fracture
SERIOUS - loss of independence

14

Risk factors for osteoporosis

female, sex steroid deficiency (menopause), advanced age, ethnicity, glucocorticoid excess, smoking, caffiene

15

Osteoporosis in men

often related to testosterone deficiency

16

Osteoporosis - Dx

Dexa scan

17

Osteoporosis - Tx

Smoking cessation, weight bearing exercise, Vit D and Calcium, Drugs

18

Osteoporosis - Tx - Drugs, effect

Bisphosphanates
---Decrease osteoclast activity
Hormone Replacement Therapy (non standard)
---Increase OPG which down regulates osteoclasts
SERM
---like estrogen
PTH analog (Anabolic Therapy - injection 1/day)
---increases pre-osteoblast growth
----hyperparathyroidism (constant elevated PTH) leads to osteoporosis though
Denosumab
---Monoclonal antibody against RANKL - down regulate osteoclast production