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Flashcards in Biliary Tree Deck (148):
1

The GB and cystic duct form from the cranial/caudal portion of the bud on the fore/mid/hindgut in the 4th or 5th week of life.

caudal, fore

2

T/F? Agenesis of the GB is a serious birth defect that needs immediate treatment.

False.

3

Duplication of the GB often occurs with the ___and may be diagnosed prenatally.

cystic duct

4

Bile is a...

digestive liquid produced by the liver.

5

When bile is stored in the GB it becomes more ___ and therefore more ___.

concentrated, potent

6

The ingestion of food casuses the release of a hormone called...

cholecystokinin (CKK)

7

CKK signals the relaxation of the ___ and the contraction of the ___ which squirts the bile into the small intestine.

sphincter of Oddi (the valve at the end of the CBD); GB

8

___ form when bile salts and cholesterol get out of balance in the bile.

Gallstones

9

The two major functions of bile in the body are...

1) to break down fats
2) to remove toxins from the liver

10

The GB derives its blood supply from the ___ artery which arises from the ___ artery.

cystic, right hepatic

11

T/F? The cystic vein drains directly into the portal vein.

True.

12

What are the three parts of the GB?

neck, body, and fundus

13

This area of the neck is a common location for impaction of gallstones.

Hartmann's pouch aka infundibulum aka that angulated portion of the neck

14

When the GB fundus folds onto the body, it's known as a...

phrygian cap.

15

When the GB has two or more compartments divided by a thin septa, it's known as a...

septate GB.

16

When the GB has a thick septa separating the components, it's known as a...

hourglass GB.

17

The GB neck tapers to form the ___ duct which joins with the ___ duct to form the ___ duct.

cystic, common hepatic, common bile

18

The ___ duct and the ___ duct join to form the ampulla of vater.

common bile, main pancreatic

19

These valves are small mucsal folds and control the bile flow in the cystic duct.

spiral valves of heister

20

GB's normal size is less than...

4 cm trans, 10 cm sag

21

GB's normal wall thickness is less than...

3 mm.

22

Because food consumption stimulates the GB to contract, a GB exam should be performed after...

a minimum of 6 hrs fasting.

23

The proximal portion of the CBD is ___ to the proper hepatic artery and ___ to the main portal vein.

lateral, anterior

24

The common risk factors for gallstones are...

5 F's:
-forty something
-female
-fat
-fertile
-fair-skinned

25

Recurrent episodes of abd pain are called...

biliary colic.

26

What do the letters of the 'WES' sign stand for?

Wall
Echo
Shadowing

27

This is the presence of a gallstone in the CBD.

Choledocholithiasis

28

This is a rare condition in which the GB becomes filled with a pasty semi-solid substance made mostly of calcium carbonate.

Milk of calcium bile aka limey bile

29

This is a a residue of particles that remain in the GB after the bile is ejected which can solidify, forming gallstones.

Sludge aka biliary sand aka microlithiasis

30

The common risk factors for GB slude are...

pregnancy
rapid weight loss
prolonged fasting
critical illness
bone marrow transplant
biliary stasis
cystic duct obstruction
cholecystitis

31

Sonographically, this appears as an amorphous material in the lumen of the GB with low level echoes in the dependent position with no shadowing.

sludge

32

Sonographically, this appears as a highly echogenic material in the GB lumen with posterior acoustic shadowing.

Milke of calcium bile

33

Sonographically, this appears as a mobile echogenic foci with shadowing in the GB lumen.

gallstones

34

Sludge that moves but doesn't shadow and mimics polypoid tumors is called...

tumefactive sludge aka 'sludge balls'

35

When sludge has the same echotexture of the liver and camouflages the GB it's referred to as...

the 'hepatization' of the GB.

36

This is a tumor or tumor-like projection arising from the GB mucosa.

GB polyp

37

Sonographically, this appears as a non-mobile, non-shadowing echogenic foci within the GB lumen.

GB polyp

38

This is an impaction of a stone in the cystic duct or the GB neck, associated with RUQ pain, fever, and leukocytosis.

Acute cholecystitis

39

Sonographically, this appears as a distended GB with a thickened hyperemic wall, stones in the lumen or the duct, fluid collections, and a positive Murphy's sign.

Acute cholecystitis

40

Amylase elevation suggests...

obstruction at the level of the ampulla of vater.

41

This is when the GB wall necroses due to decreased blood supply.

Gangrenous cholecystitis

42

Sonographically, this appears as a GB with wall striations, intraluminal membranes, and pericholecystic fluid.

gangrenous cholecystitis

43

This is when GB wall ischemia and infections lead to acute cholecystitis.

emphysematous cholecystitis (occurs more commonly in diabetic men)

44

Sonographically, this appears as a comet tail or reverberation artifact due to the presence of gas within the GB lumen.

emphysematous cholecystitis

45

This is when the GB contains purulent material due to bacteria-containing bile, initiated with obstruction of the cystic duct.

empyema

46

Sonographically, this appears as atypical bile echoes within the GB of patients with RUQ pain, fever, and leukocytosis.

empyema

47

Sonographically, this appears as a localized fluid collection in the GB fossa.

GB perforation

48

This is acute cholecystitis without the presence of gallstones.

acalculous cholecystitis

49

Prolonged use of TPN, abd surgery, trauma, severe burns, sepsis, and AIDS are associated with...

acalculous cholecystitis

50

Sonographically, this appears as a massively distended and inflamed GB lying in an unusual horizontal position.

Torsion (volvulus) of the GB

51

This presents as acute cholecystitis requiring emergency surgery, often seen in elderly females.

torsion of the GB

52

This is characterized by recurring symptoms of biliary colic due to multiple previous episodes of acute cholecystitis.

chronic cholecystitis

53

Sonographically, this appears the same as acute cholecystitis, but a thick-walled fibrotic contracted GB with sludge/stone in the cystic duct may be present.

chronic cholecystitis

54

This is an unusual variant of chronic cholecystits that resembles carcinoma of the GB.

xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis

55

Sonographically, this appears as a thickened irregular GB with extensions of inflammation to adjacent organs and hypoechoic intramural nodules.

xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis

56

T/F? GB wall thickness is > 3 mm and the most common cause is cholecystitis.

true

57

T/F? Once the GB is removed, bile is retained in the bile ducts and is not free to flow into the duodenum during fasting and digestive phases.

false, post-GB removal the bile flows freely.

58

T/F? Dilation of the extrahepatic bile duct occurs after GB removal.

true

59

This is a calcification of the GB wall.

porcelain GB

60

Porcelain GB occurs in association with gallstone ___ and may represent some form of ___ cholecystitis.

disease, chronic

61

What determines the sonographic appearance of porcelain GB?

the degree and pattern of calcification

62

When the entire GB wall is thickly calcified, a ___echoic ___lunar line with dense ___ is noted.

hyper, semi, posterior acoustic shadowing

63

When the GB wall is only mildly calcified, an ___ line with variable degrees of ___ is observed.

echogenic, posterior acoustic shadowing

64

In a porcelain GB, the luminal contents may be visible with...

interrupted clumps of calcium appearing as echogenic foci w/ posterior shadowing.

65

Why is the WES sign absent in a porcelain GB?

Because the calcification occur in the GB wall.

66

This is a benign condition in which diverticula within the GB wall accumulate stones or sludge within them.

adenomyomatosis

67

Adenomyomatosis is also known as...

rokitansky-aschoff sinuses.

68

T/F? Adenomyomatosis can be focal or diffuse.

true

69

Sonographically, this appears as tiny echogenic foci in the GB wall that create comet-tail, ringdown, or twinkling artifacts.

adenomyomatosis

70

If an echogenic foci in the GB wall does NOT create an ___ or DOES have internal ___ further investigation in needed to rule out ___.

artifact, vasularity, neoplasm

71

What are the different types of polypoid masses in the GB?

-cholesterol polyps (50-60%)
-inflammatory polyps (5-10%)
-adenoma (<5%)
-focal adenomyomatosis
-adenocarcinoma
-metastases (esp melanoma)

72

Differentiation of benign and malignant GB polyps is very important b/c the former are ___ and the latter require ___.

very common; early intervention to improve outcome

73

What are the most frequently used criteria for GB polyps being benign?

multiplicity and size less than 10 mm

74

Malignancy has been documented in 37-88% of resected GB polyps that were...

10 mm or more.

75

Besides size, how else might you tell if a GB polyp was malignant?

*older than 60
*single lesion
*gallstone disease
*rapid change in size
*sessile morphology (no stalk)

76

Approximately half of all GB polyps are...

cholesterol polyps.

77

Cholesterol polyps represent the ___ form of GB cholesterolosis, a common non-neoplastic condition.

focal

78

Cholesterolosis results in the ___ of lipids in the GB ___.

accumulation, wall

79

How do you tell a gallstone from a GB polyp?

Polyps don't roll and don't produce posterior shadowing.

80

If the focal form of cholesterolosis is the polyp, what is the diffuse form called?

Strawberry GB

81

T/F? Cholesterolosis is usually asymptomatic or presents with colicky abdominal pain.

True.

82

Sonographically, this appears as tiny echogenic foci in the GB lumen (but without comet tail reverberation).

Cholesterolosis

83

The two most common lesions that cause biliary obstruction are...

gallstones and carcinoma of the pancreas head.

84

T/F? AFP and bilirubin are typically elevated/associated with biliary obstruction.

False. Serum alk phos and bilirubin.

85

Obstruction of the distal CBD results in progressive dilation of the...

intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree.

86

Besides gallstones and pancreatic head cancer, what else could cause a biliary obstruction?

choledocholithiasis
pancreatic carcinoma
cholangiocarcinoma
cholangitis
mirizzi syndrome
choledochol cyst
GB carcinoma

87

The 'parallel channel', 'shotgun', 'star-shaped' sign is indicative of what condition?

Dilated intrahepatic ducts

88

Sonographically, these appear as irregular tortuous ducts in the liver that create lots of posterior acoustic enhancement.

dilated intrahepatic ducts

89

What happens when the obstruction is in the distal CBD?

The entire system including the GB distends.

90

What happens when the obstruction is in the CHD?

The proximal ducts distend, and the GB contracts.

91

What happens when the obstruction is in the right and left hepatic ducts?

The intrahepatic ducts dilate.

92

Here's a list of some biliary tract abnormalities...

choledochal cysts
caroli's disease
mirizzi syndrome
hemobilia
pneumobilia
acute (bacterial) cholangitis
recurrent pyogenic cholangitis
ascariasis
HIV cholangiopathy
primary sclerosing cholangitis
cholangiocarcinoma
metastases

93

This is a congenital bile duct abnormality that consists of cystic dilation of the intra or extra hepatic bile ducts and is classified into five groups.

choledochal cysts

94

Which type of choledochal cyst is the most common, a fusiform dilation of the CBD resulting in a long channel between distal CBD and MPV.

Type I

95

Which type of choledochal cyst is confined to the intraduodenal portion of the CBD outside the liver, called 'choledochoceles'?

Type III

96

Which type of choledochal cyst presents with multiple intra and extra hepatic biliary dilations?

Type IVa

97

Which type of choledochal cyst presents with multiple dilations ONLY in the extra hepatic ducts?

Type IVb

98

Which type of choledochal cyst is called Caroli's disease?

Type V

99

Sonographically, this appears as a cystic structure in the bile duct which may contain internal sludge, stones, or even solid neoplasm.

choledochal cyst

100

Because of the risk of cholangiocarcinoma with all choledochal cysts...

surgical resection is advocated

101

ERCP is necessary to ensure that ___ especially in the case of Type I choledochal cysts.

the dilation isn't the result of a distal neoplasm

102

This is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary tract characterized by multi-focal segmental dilations of the INTRAhepatic bile ducts.

Caroli's disease

103

Sonographically, this appears as multiple cystic structures that converge toward the porta hepatis communicating with the bile ducts. Sludge and calculi accumulate in the ectatic ducts resulting in posterior acoustic shadowing.

Caroli's disease

104

This condition presents with jaundice, pain, and fever resulting from an impacted stone in the cystic duct that compresses the CHD.

Mirizzi syndrome

105

This condition is characterized by a blood clot in the biliary tree.

hemobilia

106

This condition results from previous biliary intervention and is characterized by air in the biliary tree.

pneumobilia

107

Sonographically, this appears as intrahepatic linear echogenic regions that produce dirty shadowing and reverberation artifacts.

pneumobilia

108

Pneumobilia is best diagnosed by seeing the air bubbles move within the bile ducts. This phenomena can be produced by...

changing the patient's position.

109

This condition presents with leukocytosis, elevated alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin, and Charcot's triad (fever, ruq pain, jaundice).

acute (bacterial) cholangitis

110

What is an essential component of bacterial cholangitis along with CBD stones?

antecedent (precursor) biliary obstruction

111

What kind of bile is most commonly affected by acute cholangitis?

bile infected by gram-negative enteric bacteria, as shown by blood cultures

112

Sonographically, this appears as a dialation of the biliary tree, choledocholithiasis and possibly sludge, bile duct wall thickening, and hepatic abscesses.

acute (bacterial) cholangitis

113

This condition is an inflammation process affecting the biliary tree in the advanced stages of HIV infection.

HIV cholangiopathy aka AIDS cholangitis

114

Patients with this condition present with severe RUQ or epigastic pain, markedly elevated alk phos but NORMAL bilirubin levels.

HIV cholangiopathy aka AIDS cholangitis

115

Sonographically, this appears as bile duct wall thickening, intra & extra hepatic focal structures and dilations, CBD dilations, and diffuse GB wall thickening.

HIV cholangiopathy aka AIDS cholangitis

116

This condition is a chronic disease process that affects the entire bliary tree, frequently seen in middle aged men, particularly if they have concomitant inflammatory bowel disease, usually ulcerative colitis.

primary sclerosing cholangitis

117

Sonographically, this appears as irregular circumferential bile duct wall thickening of varying degrees, encroaching on and narrowing the lumen, with focal strictures and dilations of the bile ducts.

primary sclerosing cholangitis

118

This develops in 7-30% of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

cholangiocarcinoma

119

T/F? Primary sclerosing cholangitis is not seen in extrahepatic ducts.

False, it's seen in both intra- and extrahepatic ducts.

120

In this condition, roundworms spread by the fecal-oral route that are active in the small bowel may enter the biliary tree through the ampulaa of vater and cause a biliary obstruction.

ascariasis

121

Sonographically, this appears as a tube or parallel echogenic line within the bile ducts like a stent or, transversely, as a 'target' surrounded by bile ducts.

ascariasis

122

This condition is associated with gallstones, chronic gallstone disease, and resultant dysplasia.

GB carcinoma

123

Sonographically, this can appear a a mass arising in the GB fossa, obliterating the GB and invading the adjacent liver.

GB carcinoma

124

Sonographically, this can appear as a focal or diffuse, markedly abnormal and irregular wall thickening.

GB carcinoma

125

Sonographically, this can appear as an intraluminal polypoid mass.

GB carcinoma

126

What are the two patterns of GB carcinoma tumor spread?

contiguous hepatic spread**(most common)
lympatic spread

127

Contiguous hepatic spread of GB carcinoma is the most common pattern because...

the GB wall is thin and so little connective tissue separates it from the liver parenchyma.

128

How does GB carcinoma mimic hilar cholangiocarcinoma?

by extending up the cystic duct into the porta hepatis

129

This pattern of GB carcinoma spread may occur even in the absence of invasion of adjacent organs.

lympatic spread

130

Where are the first nodes to be affected in the lymphatic spread of GB carcinoma?

the hilar region

131

Sonographically, small masses of ___ in the GB fossa may be difficult to appreciate because they blend into the liver.

GB carcinoma spread

132

The absence of a normal appearing GB with no history of cholecystectomy should raise suspicion of...

GB carcinoma spread

133

Sonographically, this may appear as a polypoid mass in the GB.

primary GB adenocarcinoma

134

Sonographically, this appears as multiple hyperechoic broad based polyps.

primary GB adenocarcinoma

135

This condition is an uncommon neoplasm that may arise from any portion of the biliary tree.

cholangiocarcinoma

136

The two types of cholangiocarcinoma are...

intra- and extrahepatic

137

This is the least common (but second most common) primary malignancy of the liver.

intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

138

Sonographically, this appears as a large hepatic mass, hypovascular, solid with heterogeneous echotexture.

intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

139

Primary sclerosing cholangitis**(most common) and chronic biliary stasis and inflammation are the risk factors for...

intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

140

Hilar intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is also known as...

klatskins.

141

Klatskins staging and tumor growth patterns begin where?

in either the right or left bile ducts and extend proximally (into the higher order branches) and distally (into the CHD and contralateral bile ducts).

142

T/F? Klatskin tumors can extend outside of the bile ducts into the adjacent portal vein and arteries.

True

143

T/F? Klatskin tumor usually do not metastasize to the liver.

False

144

T/F? In klatskins, nodal disease often begins at the porta hepatis.

True

145

This condition mimics the different appearances of cholangiocarcinoma and affects both intra and extra hepatic ducts.

metastases

146

These sites constitute the majority of primary metastases to the biliary tree.

breast, colon, and melanoma

147

This condition is the most common malignant neoplasm that obstructs the biliary tree.

pancreatic adenocarcinoma

148

Sonographically, this appears as an enlarged, often palpable, GB in a patient pancreatic head carcinoma. It is associated with jaundice due to obstruction of the CBD.

Courvoisier GB