Bio 108 - Lecture 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio 108 - Lecture 11 Deck (31):
1

Five Innovations of Seed Plants

1) Dependant Gametophyte
2) Heterospory
3) Ovules
4) Pollen
5) Seeds

2

Female Gametophytes

- Develops via mitosis from the megaspore produced within megasporangium wrapped in integuments

3

Female Ovule + Parts

Outside layer = Integuments
Megasporangium (2n) surrounds the Megaspore (1n)

4

Angio =

Container

5

Male Gametophytes

1n Microspore retained inside of microsporangium
- Microspores go through mitosis to produce tiny 1n male gametophytes = pollen

6

What are pollen grains coated with?

Sporopollenin, making them tough

7

What do pollen if they reach and ovule?

Pollinate and then fertilize ovule

8

What's Special about Orchids and Milkweed Pollen?

Produce larger clumps with 1000's of grains

9

What Causes Pollen Allergies?

Proteins associated with sporopollenin coat

10

What does the male gametophyte of Non seed plants and seed plants do?

Non-Seed: Single celled sperm searches for egg, has to be in water.

Seed: Entire male gametophyte goes in the form of pollen

11

What is a seed?

A sporophyte embryo in gametophyte tissues in parent sporophyte wrapping

12

Dispersal stage vs Traveling stage

Dispersal stage is for seed plants,
Traveling stage is when the spore travels in non seed plants

13

Large Seeds vs Small Seeds

Large seeds with a lot of food can germinate and grow in low light
Small seeds with little food need lots of light to grow

14

Two main Clades of Seed Plants

1) Gymnosperms
2) Angiosperms

15

Gymnos =
Angio =

Gymnos = Naked
Angio = Vessel

16

Gymnosperms

Characterized by seed that is relatively Naked
- Normally in cones

17

4 Phyla of Gymnosperms

1) Ginkgophyta
2) Gnetophyta
3) Cyacadophtta
4) Coniferophyta

18

Phylum Ginkgophyta + Example

Only One species - Ginkgo Biloba
- Common street tree
- Flagellated sperm

19

Ginkgophyta Sporohpyte

- Large and woody
- Seperate male and female
- Only male trees planted in urban areas

20

Economic Uses of Ginkgo Leaves

- though to improve blood flow and improve memory

21

Cyadophyta

130 Species, made up of small trees
Have flagellated sperm

22

Sporophyte of Cyadophyta

- Both male and female
- Both have large cones
- Females produce fleshy coated seeds

23

2 Gymnosperms with flagellated sperm

1) Ginkgophyta
2) Cycadophyta

24

Gnetophyta + 3 genera

1) Gnetum - 35 species (tropical)
2) Welwtschia - 1 species in africa
3) Ephedra (dessert 40 species)

25

Economic Uses of Gnetophyta

Ephedrine causes lungs to dilate
- made into tea

26

Coniferophyta + Examples

- Most species rich phylum, 600 species
- Named after their cones, which are clusters of sporophylls
- All woody shrubs or trees
- Needles or scale leaves
- Most are evergreen

27

Fer =

to bear

28

What are Evergreens?

- A coniferophyta that do not drop leaves in autumn

29

Economic Uses of Coniferophyta

- Most common softwood tree in NA
- Provide other useful materials

30

Bark Beetles

- Lay eggs in trees
- Also can bring in fungi

31

What is Resin?

- What trees use to pitch out beetles
- Also called pitch
- Fossilized resin = amber