Bio 141 Notes (4/24/14) Flashcards Preview

Bio 141 > Bio 141 Notes (4/24/14) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bio 141 Notes (4/24/14) Deck (18):
1

When does DNA Synthesis happen?

interphase/ cell cycle

2

origin of replication

ori

3

Helicase

unwinds helix and separates strands

4

Primer

-is required before replication can be produced
made of RNA
-short single stand piece

5

Primase

synthesizes and RNA primer

6

DNA Polymerase

adds nucleotides to 3' end

7

why is there leading and lagging strands of DNA

leading - proceeding the same direction DNA is being unwound and becoming available
lagging - little left behind needs a new primer

8

Okazaki Fragments

DNA and primer meet
they don't touch, there's a gap

9

DNA Polymerase III

synthesizes DNA over open sections

10

DNA Polymerase I

synthesizes DNA to replace the RNA primer

11

DNA ligase

joins adjacent strands to each other

12

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction
- DNA amplification (very useful) (copying)
- ingredients - template, primers, dNTP, polymerase
- instead of helicase you can DNA to almost boiling

13

PCR results

1 million times more DNA than you started with
-DNA is negatively charged
- all copies are the exact same length

14

Mutations

changes in DNA lead to changes in proteins, etc.
arise from errors in copying

15

Induced Mutations

some chemicals or environmental factors
mutegens
carcinogens

16

Mutegens

cause mutations

17

Carinogens

cause mutations that ultimately lead to cancer

18

Central Dogma

DNA -> RNA -> Protein