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Flashcards in Bio Chapter 11 Deck (48):
0

describe Mendels experiement and jnow the relating terms (p, f1, f2, cross pollinating, true-breeding)

P generation- true breeding (homozygous) plants that had opposite traits (short vs. Tall) and cross pollinated them.
F1- HYBRIDS one dominant one recessive
f2- offspring were TT Ts or ss

1

Explain the principles Mendel developed

Inheritance-traits genes passed from parents to offspring
Principle of dominance- some alleles are dominant to others and will mask recessive
Segregation of alleles- alleles separate during the formation of gametes so each cell has one
Independent assortment- alleles segragate when looking at more than one trait at a time
(Remember Morgan found it is the chromosomes that have independent assortment not the genes)

2

Know the relationship between alleles genes and chromosomes

Genes-sequence of dna that codes for a particular trait
alleles- different forms of genes (T and t)
Chromosomes-contain many genes

3

Study Putney squares

Yeeeaahhh

4

Genotype

Genetic make-up

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Phenotype

Physical characteristics

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Heterozygous

Organisms that have 2 different alleles for a particular trait (hybrids)

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Homozygous

Organisms with two identical alleles for a particular trait (true-breeding)to

8

Dominant

Shows

9

Recessive

"Disappeared"

10

Hybrid

Offspring crossed from parents with different traits

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Dihybrid

Hybrid x2

12

Polygenic trait

Traits produced by interactions of several genes

13

Heredity

the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.

14

Genetics

Study of heredity

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Allele

Different forms of gene

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Gene

Sequence of Dna that determines a trait

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True-breeding

Create identical offspring

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Probability

Likelihood a particular event will occur

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Segregation

Alleles separate during the formation of gametes

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Independent assortment

Genes for different traits can segregate independently during formation of gametes

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Fertilization

Male and female reproductive cells join during sexual reproduction

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Multiple alleles

More than two possible alleles exist in a population

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Gametes

Sex cells

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Hybrids

Offspring crossed from parents with different traits

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Red+white=pink

Incomplete dominace

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Black+white= spots

Codominance

27

How many daughter cells does one complete cycle of Meiosis form?

4 haploid cells

28

What types of cells make gametes during the process of Meiosis?

2N diploid

29

What's the difference between a diploid cell and a haploid cell?

Diploid have 2 sets of genes and haploid have 1

30

What are homologous chromosomes?

Chromosomes that are similar in size,centrome location,and have the same genes on the chromosomes. One from dad one from mom.

31

What is the process of crossing-over and during which stage of Meiosis does it occur?

Prophase I

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Prophase I

Each replicated chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologus chromosome

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Metaphase I

Paired homologous chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

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An aphasia I

Spindles pull each homologous pair towards opposite ends of cell

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Telephase I/cytokinises

Nuclear membrane forms around each cluster of chromosomes

Cytokinises forms two new cells

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Prophase II

Chromosomes become visible

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Metaphase, Anaphase, telophase II

Similar to Meiosis I but produces 4 haploid cells

38

How are cells produced form Meiosis and Mitosis different?

Mitosis are diploid and genetically identical to parent cells, Meiosis are haploid and genetically diverse

39

What is a tetrad?

2 replicated homologous chromosomes... Looks like 2 X's

40

How is speed production different than egg production?

Sperm- all haploid cells are same size and can be used in reproduction
Eggs- 1 haploid cell gets most of the cytoplasm and is the only one used in sexual reproduction

41

Zygote

Fertilized egg that will grow through Mitosis

42

Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis

Change in chromosomes number
Number of cell divisions

Mitosis diploid to diploid
Meiosis diploid to haploid

Mitosis 1
Meiosis 2

43

How can 2 alleles from different genes be inherited together

Genes linkage-basically when they are on the same chromosomes

44

What were Morgan's discoveries when studying fruit flies

Gene linkage- modified Mendels principle of individual assortment

45

How does independent assortment (Mendels principle) relate to Morgan's discoveries?

Independent assortment does occur but it occurs with chromosomes not individual genes. Morgan studied traits related to chromosomes

46

What is gene linkage

Some genes seem to always be inherited together (seem to break principles of independent assortment)

47

What is a gene map? What does it show you?

Gene map- shows relative distances between genes on a chromosome likelihood of 2 genes crossing over which code for certain traits.