Bio Test #8 Flashcards Preview

Honors Biology > Bio Test #8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bio Test #8 Deck (28):
1

ecology

study of relationships between living organisms & their environment

2

ecosystem

community & its abiotic environment

3

population

all organisms of the same species that live in the same area at the same time

4

community

population of different species interacting in the same area

5

species

group of individuals that can interbreed & produce fertile offspring

6

habitat

location within which a species normally lives

7

autotroph

producer; organism that can synthesize organic molecules from unorganic molecules

8

heterotroph

consumer; can obtain organic molecules from other organisms

9

What are types of heterotrophs?

herbivores, carnivores, detritivores

10

herbivores

organisms that feed on plant matters

11

carnivores

organisms that feed on other organsims

12

detritivores

organisms that feed on non living organism matters

13

Saprotrophs/ saprophyte

secrete digestive enzymes on either living or nonliving organisms and then absorb the product of external digestion

14

food chains

diagrams that show the linear flow of energy by showing "who eats whom." The arrow points toward animal that eats. "not the one that is eaten." must be specific

15

food web

diagrams that show how food chains are linked. They offer a more complete picture

16

What are limitations of food web?

difficult to construct accurately (can take years); sometimes we don't know all the relationships between organisms; diet changes with season and that is not shown by food web

17

evolution

cumulative change in heritable characteristics of a population

18

natural selection

the environment select traits that are most favorable by allowing organisms with a certain trait to survive. Because they survive, they will be more likely to reproduce & pass the trait onto their

19

struggle for survival

organism must compete for food, territory, shelter, mates, water, and health

20

What are the three pieces of evidence for evolution?

fossil record
artificial selection/ breeding
homologous structures

21

fossil

ancient, preserved remains of an organism

22

fossil record

can be dated (age of rock formation it is), show gradual change of organisms
show extinction, still not complete (several gaps)

23

artificial selection

men have selectively been breeding animals/plants for 1000s of years to suit their needs; if an animal show a favorable traits that animal will be allowed to breed in the hopes that the trait will be passed on to the offspring

24

Homologous Structures

organisms that share a common ancestor will show or retain some common structures; vestigial structures

25

vestigial

modified; enlarged or reduced

26

What are vestigial structures of homologous structures?

convergent
divergent

27

convergent structure

2 organisms that do not share a common ancestor & have a structure that fulfills the same function

28

divergent structure

shows adaptions & modifications from a common ancestor