Bio107-ch6&7pt1 Flashcards Preview

E: BIO 107 > Bio107-ch6&7pt1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bio107-ch6&7pt1 Deck (51):
1

Axial skeleton (4 structures)

"axis" of body
skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum

2

Appendicular skeleton (3 kinds)

appendages
1. Limb girdles
2. Long bones
3. Manus & Pes

3

Limb girdles (3 kinds)

connect long bones to axial
1. Scapula & Clavicle
2. Pelvis

4

Long bones (2 kinds)

1. Upper- humerus, ulna, radius
2. Lower- femur, tibia, fibula

5

Manus

hand

6

Pes

foot

7

Classification of bones by shapes (4)

1. Long bone- humerus
2. Irregular bone- vertebra
3. Flat bone- sternum
4. Short bone- talus

8

Projection sites of MUSCLE & LIGAMENT attachment:
Tuberosity

large rounded projection

may be roughened

9

Trochantar

very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (femur)

10

Line

narrow ridge of bone

(less prominent than crest)

11

Tubercle

small rounded projection or process

12

Epicondyle

raised area on or above condyle

13

Projections that help to form JOINTS:
Head

bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

14

Condyle

rounded articular PROJECTION

15

Foramen

round or oval OPENing through a bone

16

Meatus

canal-like passageway

17

Fosa

shallow, basin-like DEPRESSION in bone

18

Functions of the Skeleton (5)

1. Support for soft tissues
2. Muscle attachment
3. Protection from mechanical injury
4. Calcium storage
5. Hemopoiesis in red bone marrow (blood cell formation)

19

How to bones form? (2)

1. Endochondral Bone Formation
2. Intramembranous Bone Formation

20

Endochondral Bone Formation

HYALINE cartilage is gradually replaced by BONE tissue

21

Intramembranous Bone Formation

BONE is deposited directly into sheets of dense fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE

NO CARTILAGE INVOLVED

22

BOTH forms of bone formation form (2)

compact & spongy bone

23

IntramemBF (3 kinds)

1. Dermal bone formation
2. Sesamoid bone formation
3. Appositional bone formation

24

IMBF- Appositional Bone Formation

within REGULAR dense connective tissue of PERIOSTEUM

(long bones grow in WIDTH)

25

Hyaline cartilage is removed by

chrondroCLASTS

26

Bone is deposited by

osteoBLASTS

27

Bone is removed by

osteoCLASTS

28

Rickets

soft decalcified bones in children

caused by a lack of Ca and VitD

29

Adult form of Rickets

osteomalacia

30

Bone & Calcium Metabolism process

1. Ca in food enters digestive tract
2. Ca is absorbed into bloodstream with assistance of VitD

Ca (in gut) ---VitD3---> Ca (in blood)

31

Vitamin D3 in kidney formula

1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D ---Sunlight---> Vitamin D3

32

When no new Ca is added to the body, osteoclasts ____ Ca from the bones until they become _____.

remove
decalcified

33

Calcium metabolism is regulated by 2 hormones

1. Calcitonin
2. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

34

Calcitonin

secreted by thyroid gland

stimulates osteoBLASTS to deposit Ca in bones

35

PTH

secreted by parathyroid gland

stimulates osteoCLASTS to remove Ca from bones

36

Types of bone fractures (6)

1. Transverse
2. Oblique
3. Spiral
4. Angulated
5. Displaced
6. Angulated & displaced

37

Steps in healing a broken bone (4)

1. A hematoma forms
2. Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
3. Bony callus forms
4. Bone remodeling occurs

38

Fractures that affect the epiphyseal plate cartilage (growth plate) are

considered more serious than adult breaks

39

Osteoporosis

disease of bone when Ca is removed quicker than it is depositied

Osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts

40

Lamellae (in bone)

Ring within a ring

40

Lacunae

Houses lamellae and bone cells

40

Canaliculus

Canals from one lamellae to another

40

Epiphysis

ENDS of bones

Spongy bone-red bone marrow (hemopoiesis)

40

Diaphysis

Shaft of a bone

Compact bone, sold with hollow cavity down the middle

Yellow bone marrow (fat)

40

Epiphyseal line

Birth - puberty: called epiphyseal PLATE, stays cartilage, GROWTH PLATE

After puberty: called epiphyseal LINE, stays as compact bone, no more growth

40

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells

40

Chondro-

Cartilage

40

How many bones are in the skeleton?

206

40

Trabeculae

Soft bone

40

Endochondral bone formation process

Page 3 of pt 1 notes

41

Weight bearing activity activates

Osteoblasts