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Flashcards in BIO220 Lecture 3 Deck (50)
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1

Mating behaviour of satin bowerbird

Males build bowers pre-mating season, and decorate with blue/yellow objects to attract females. Mate her while she is distracted with the decorations.

2

Mating behaviour of sage grouse

Leks: female come in to inspect the males, and pick one that she wants

3

How is the variance in sage grouse mating?

High variance in mating success in males (1 or 2 males get all the females)

4

Female choice

A female trait that biases the mating success of males towards the preferred type

5

Other words for female choice

mating bias, female preference

6

What categories of traits are the females looking for?

- Visual stimulation
- Tactile stimulation
- Acoustical stimulation
- Olfactory stimulation

7

Examples of organisms that use visual stimulation

Scorpionfly
Barn swallow
Long-tailed widowbird
Satin bower bird
Cichlid fish
Field cricket
Jungle fowl

8

Examples of organisms that use tactile stimulation

Sierra dome spider

9

Examples of organisms that use acoustical stimulation

Field cricket
Woodhouse's toad
Great reed warbler
Tungara frog

10

Examples of organisms that use olfactory stimulation

Mouse
Cockroach
Moth

11

Why was the tail manipulation experiment done, and on what species?

To make sure the trait we think is being selected for by females is actually being selected for.
Done in widow birds.

12

What were the groups that were in the tail manipulation experiment

Natural (N)
Reduced (R)
Elongated (L)
Sham surgery (S)

13

What is the purpose of sham surgery?

Tail length not changed, but some manipulation is done (control group)

14

What was found by the tail manipulation experiment?

L > N = S > R
Females do prefer males with longer tails

15

What peacock trait do females prefer?

More eyespots on tail

16

Two animals which use visual stimulation to attract mates

1. Widow birds
2. Peacocks

17

How do tungara frogs attract mates?

Complex calls (whine & chucks);
Whines attract females, and number of chucks is what makes one male better than the other.

18

Why don't all tungara frogs have more complex calls?

Bats are attracted to whines of males too, and they are more likely to get eaten if they have more chucks

19

Two problems of female choice

1. Why are male elaborations common?
2. Why do females prefer certain traits?

20

Why are male elaborations common?

Females prefer them, so there is selection for elaboration

21

Why do females prefer certain traits in males?

1. Direct benefit to female for selecting such traits (can produce more offspring)
2. Indirect benefits to females (through offspring)

22

Direct benefit hypothesis implies that females select males w/ certain traits b/c

She's actually selecting for resources (PI) that the male has. The trait is just an indicator of PI.

23

PI

Parental investment

24

How do female mormon crickets pick mates?

Pick those with bigger spermataphores. Male will stick it on her, and while she eats the protein, the sperm will fertilize her.

25

Spermataphores

Sperm attached to a protein glob. Bigger = more protein for females to nourish herself with.

26

How do hanging flies pick mates?

Male kills prey, and displays to attract female with food. Females pick bigger offering. While she eats the food, male fertilizes her.

27

Why might bigger prey displays be beneficial to male and female hanging flies?

Females: more food
Males: have longer time to fertilize while female is eating = more sperm transferred

28

What do females look for as indicators of PI?

- Territory quality
- Parental care
- Defense
- Lack of parasites (STIs)

29

Indirect benefit hypothesis implies that females select males w/ certain traits b/c

They have better genes so offspring will be better (fitness)

30

When is indirect benefit hypothesis applicable?

- Only thing male gives female is sperm
- Female want to improve offspring quality, not quantity