✅ BIOCHEM - Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ✅ BIOCHEM - Carbohydrates Deck (51):
1

Empiric formula of carbs

(CH2O)n

2

Number of sugar units in oligosaccharides

3-10 sugars

3

Monosaccharides are classified accdg to

Number of carbon atoms
Functional group

4

Glucose is what type of monosaccharide

Aldose

5

______ have carbonyl groups at the end

Aldose

6

_____ have carbonyl groups in the middle

Ketoses

7

Glucose when oxidized forms

Glucuronic acid

8

Glucose when reduced form

Sorbitol (alcohol)

9

What sugars are abundant in humans?

D-sugars

10

The sugar of the body

D-glucose

11

What sugar is a constituent of many glycoproteins?

D-mannose

12

Xylose is found in

Glycoproteins

13

Neuraminic acid is found in

Proteoglycans

14

Monosaccharide found in cardiac tissue

Lyxose

15

How are disaccharides formed?

Condensation of 2 monosaccharides

16

Bond between disaccharides

Glycosidic bonds

17

Glucose + glucose
What bond?

Maltose
Alpha 1,4

18

Glucose + galactose

Lactose
Beta 1,4

19

Glucose + fructose

Sucrose
Alpha 1,2

20

Example of an oligosaccharide

Maltotriose

21

Disaccharide from fungi and yeast. A major source of insect hemolymph.

Trehalose

22

Polysaccharide of fructose used to determine GFR

Inulin

23

Bonds of cellulose

Beta 1,4

24

Other name for mucopolysaccharides

Glycosaminoglycans

25

2 types of projections in chemical structure

Fisher and hayworth

26

What are isomers?

Same chemical formula but different structures

27

Define epimers

Compounds that differe in configuration around only one specific carbon atom with the exception of the carbonyl carbon

28

Define enantiomers

Mirror images
Designated as levo or dextro

29

Other name for enantiomers

Stereoisomers
Optical isomers

30

6 carbon ring

Pyran ring

31

5 carbon ring

Furan ring

32

Define anomer

Convertible between a linear form and ring form

33

Spontaneous interconversion of anomers through a process

Mutarotation

34

Principal sites of carbohydrate digestion

Mouth
SI

35

Amylase can digest what type of glycosidic bonds

Alpha 1,4

36

Pancreatic amylase hydrolyzes complex carbs to what forms

Disaccharides and trisaccharides

But NOT directly to monosaccharides

37

Disaccharides are digested in the _____

Brush border of the SI

38

Glut 2 is what type of channel

Facilitated diffusion

39

Glut 5 utilizes what transport means?

Facilitated diffusion

40

SGLT 1 is what type of transport?

Secondary active transport

41

Other name for SGLT 1

Sodium glucose symport

42

Glut 5 transporter is for all sugars. T or false

False

For glucose, galactose, fructose

43

SGLT 1 is for what sugars?

Glucose
Galactose

44

Define glycemic index

Increase in blood glucose after a test dose of a carb compared to that with an equivalent amt of glucose

45

Lactose intolerance : Asians
Isomaltase-sucrase deficiency : ?

Greenland eskimos

46

What is the basis for the not giving milk to someone with diarrhea?

Wash off of enzymes transiently

47

Both anabolic and metabolic pathway

Amphibolic

48

Example of an amphibolic pathway

Kreb's Cycle

49

Most abundant organic molecules in nature

Carbohydrates

50

Only insulin stimulated glut transporter

Glut 4

51

Where does glycolysis occur?

Cytoplasm