biochem principles: proteins, vits., minerals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in biochem principles: proteins, vits., minerals Deck (26):
1

what happens in normal/wild type?

functional protein produced

2

what happens in silent mutation

single nucleotide switch - same AA - functional protein

3

what missense/point mutation?

single nucleaotide switch - diff. AA - may lead to no function

4

what is nonsense mutation

single nucleotide switch - stop codon - may lead to no function

5

what is frameshift mutation

extra nucleaotide added - changes downstream coding

6

what is DNA finger printing

amplify smaller regions and run out on agrose gel

7

what does presence of mRNA or micorRNA tell us

what genes are active - making a protein

8

6 potential protein functions

1. structural
2. enzymes
3. hormones
4. membrane receptors
5. transporters - body or on cell surface
6. antobodies

9

what are vitamins

co-factors that enzymes need to do their job

10

2 sources of vitamins

1. synthesized in body
2. obtained from outside

11

4 general needs for minerals

1. structural componnents - Ca in bones
2. signalling molecles
3. functional components in enzymes
4. electrical/osmotic balance

12

what is protein structure important for?

active site formation and protein-protein interactions

13

what holds a protein together

non-covalent bonds or disulfide bonds

14

what is calcium induced structural change?

Ca binds to protein changing it's strucutre and resulting in new function

15

how does pH affect proteins

changes which AAs are protonated/deprotonoated - changes structure and function

16

how are proteins regulated (4)

1. expression or degradation
2. subsrate availability
3. inhibitors (drugs)
4. molecules that bind to sites other than active sites
5. protein modifciation (methyls, sulfates)

17

how does aspirin interact with COX enzyme

bind to secondary site and changes active site permanently

18

what are protein precursors

proteins that must still be modified to be active (zymogens, pre-pro-insulin)

19

what is metabolism

anabolic and catabolic generation of ATP

20

how are enzymes involved in metabolism

1. catalyze the conversion of one structure to another
2. signalling

21

what are high energy intermediates

energy found in bonds of ATP, NADPH and FAD2

22

how is ATP made?

electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation

23

where is glocose stored

as glycogen in liver and muscle

24

how is excess glucose stored

acetyl CoA for fat storage

25

what are lipid forms

1. fatty acids and triglycerides
2. cholesterol
3. lipoproteins
4.

26

what are antioxidants

reactive oxygen species that can react and damage proteins, DNA, lipids

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