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Flashcards in Biochem test Deck (38):
1

Biochemistry

Is the chemistry of living things (looking at living things on a molecular level

2

Lab: Blood Stains at Crime Scene: ABO System

Blood type is determined by presence or absence of specific proteins on individual’s red blood cells

3

Lab: Blood Stains at Crime Scene: Blood contains protein A

-type A blood
-Antigen A on surface of blood cell
-Antibodies for B in blood plasma so clumps in anti-A Sera

4

Lab: Blood Stains at Crime Scene: Blood contains protein B

-type B blood
-Antigen B on surface of blood cell
-Antibodies for A in blood plasma so clumps in anti-B Sera

5

Lab: Blood Stains at Crime Scene: Blood contains proteins A and B

-type AB blood (universal recipient)
-Antigen A and B on surface of blood cell
-No antibodies in blood plasma so clumps in anti-A and in anti-B Sera

6

Lab: Blood Stains at Crime Scene: Blood contains lacks A and B

-type O blood (universal donor)
-No antigens on surface of blood cell
-Antibodies A and B in blood plasma so no clumping in either in anti-A and in anti-B Sera

7

Four fundamental chemical components of cells

Carbohydrates > sugars
Proteins > amino acids
Lipids > reaction of fatty acids and alcohols make fats
Nucleic acids > nucleiotides (phosphate + sugar + base)

8

Proteins

-Its 3-dimensional structure is vital to the function of the protein
-Breaking down the 3-dimensional structure is called denaturation

9

Monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, and galactose

10

Disaccharides

sucrose, maltose, lactose (know which monosaccharides unite to create each)

11

Know firms of lipids

free fatty acid, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phopholipid

12

Triglycerides

Trimesters of glycerol with fatty acids

13

Phospholipids

Glycerol attached to 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate group

14

Steroids

Characterized by 4 linked carbon rings

15

Nucleic Acids

made of nucleotides
Phosphate group
5 carbon sugar
cyclic amine (nitrogen containing organic base)

16

DNA

sugar is deoxyribose
one of the following amine bases
adenine (A)
guanine (G)
cytosine (C)
thymine (T)

17

RNA

sugar is ribose
one of the following amine bases
adenine (A)
guanine (G)
cytosine (C)
uracil (U)

18

Base Pairing

A with T or U, C with G

19

DNA and Protein SYnthesis

know stuff

20

Chemicals of life: Carbs

(starch)
-Iodine test
-The solution turns from dark-yellow brown to purple (dark) in the presence of carbs

21

Chemicals of life: Proteins

(gelatin)
-Biuret solution test
-The solution turns from light blue to purple (violet)

22

Chemicals of life: Mineral oil

(mineral oil)
-Sudan (III) solution test
-The solution is pale yellow/orange  no lipids
-The solution forms layers  -top layer pale pink-orange

23

Chemicals of life: Nucleic Acids

(DNA)
-Diphenylamine test
-Heat for 10-20 minutes
-Solution milky white at first
-Solution turns purple  DNA
-Solution turns green  RNA
-Our solution tested positive for DNA

24

Milk Is A Natural: Milk Proteins-3 biggies

Casein, lactalbumin, and lactoglobulin

25

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Casein

-80% of milk’s protein content
-Phosphoprotein (large number of phosphates attached to the amino acid side chains)
-The negative phosphate groups are attracted to calcium ion so it is responsible for high calcium content in milk
-Insoluble in water (see Cheese lab); can precipitate out with acid

26

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: lactalbumin

-An enzyme involved in lactose synthesis; lactose is the main carb in milk
-Water soluble; cannot precipitate with acid; can precipitate with heat (80 -90 deg C)

27

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: lactoglobulin

-Responsible for the immunological (“protective”) functions of milk
-Water soluble; cannot precipitate with acid; can precipitate with heat (80-90 deg C)

28

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Buiret Test

When a protein reacts with copper (II) sulfate in the Buiret solution andin the presence of a strong base (sodium hydroxide), the copper (II) ions bind to the nitrogen atoms and the carbonyl groups in the protein to form a stable PURPLE complex

29

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Simple Carbs

glucose, fructose, galactose

30

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Disaccarides

sucrose (table sugar), maltose (malt sugar), and lactose (milk sugar)

31

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Polysaccharides

Starch and cellulose and glycogen

32

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Benedicts

The intense blue color of Benedict’s solution fades during a positive test result, which is maeked by the formation of an orange-red precipitate of Copper (I) oxides when heated

33

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Step one

treat skim milk with acetic acid and gently heat
-As the pH of the milk falls, the Calcium ions that are bound to the phosphate in casein are replaced with hydrogen  casein precipitates from solution (dry overnight at room temp  white solid)
-The filtrate liquid contains the remaining milk proteins (L& L– see below) and carbs
-Biuret test to confirm protein

34

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Step two

Heat the filtrate to 80-90 oC
-The remaining milk proteins (lactalbumin and lactoglobulin) precipitate
-The whey filtrate contains carbs only
-Biuret test to confirm protein

35

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Step three

Remove a small portion of the filtrate and heat in oven for 20-30 min to isolate the lactose (white solid)
Benedict’s test to confirm carbs

36

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Experiment

-Casein protein seperated first with addition of acetic acid
-Lactalbumin and lactoglobulin proteins seperated second with the addition heat
-Only remaining cpd in solution was lactose
Sample placed on watchglass and water boiled off  could visibly see the clear sugar residue

37

Lab: Milk Is A Natural: Testing performed

In the control samples, protein turned the blue biuret solution purple and carbs turned the blue benedict’s solution orange red.

38

Lab: Cheese Making Kit Enzymes

-Enzymes are proteins that catalyze specific biological reactions.
--Most biological reactions would be too slow for living systems
--As catalysts, enzymes are not consumed in the reaction
-The lock-and-key model of enzyme activity says that enzymes function by binding to the reacting molecule
-In order for the reaction to take place, the substrate must bind to the enzyme by fitting into a specific part of the enzyme called the active site
-After reaction has taken place, the products no longer fit well into the active site and are released from the enzyme