Biochemical basis of neuropsychiatric disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biochemical basis of neuropsychiatric disorders Deck (109):
1

what are the biogenic amines

acetyl choline
dopamine
norepinephrine
epinephreine
serotonin
malatonin
histamine

2

what are the biogenic amines derived from tyrosine

DA, NE, and epi

3

what are the biogenic amines derived from indolamines

5Ht and melatonin,

4

what are the amino acid neurotransmitters

glu, asp, gly, GABA, ser, Cys

5

names of the purigenic neurotransmitters

adenosine, UTP, ATP, ADP and ApnA (diadenosine)

6

D1 and D2

excitatory, increase cAMP

7

D2-D4

inhibitory, decreases cAMP

8

5HT1 and 5Ht5

inhibitory, decreases cAMP

9

5Ht2

excitatory, increases IP3/DAG

10

5Ht3

excitatory, ligand gated sodium channel

11

5HT4,6,7

excitatory increases cAMP

12

alpha 1

excitatory, increases IP3, DAG, NE>EPi

13

alpha 2

inhibitory- decreases CAMP, epi> NE

14

beta 123

excitatory, increases cAMP

15

H1

excitatory, increases IP3 and DAG

16

H2

excitatory increases cAMP

17

H3,4

inhibitory- decreases cAMP

18

N12

excitatory, ligand gated sodium channel

19

M13,5

excitatory, increases IP3, DAG

20

M2,4

decreases cAMP

21

AMPA and kainate

excitatory sodium channels

22

NMDA

excitatory sodium and calcium channels

23

mGLU R 1 and 5

excitotry increases IP3, DAG (class I)

24

mGLU r 2,3,4,6,7,8

inhibitory, decreases cAMP

25

GABA receptors

all are inhibitory

26

GABAa

ligand gated chloride channel

27

GABAb

second messenger triggered potassium channel

28

GABAc

ligand gated chloride channel

29

Gly

inhibitory, ligand gated chlroide channel

30

all neurohomrone s

exchitatory, increased IP3 and DAG except arginine vasopresin receptor 2

31

all tachykinin receptors

excitatory increases IP3 and DAG

32

delta, leu-met-enkephalin

2nd messenger trigger potassium channel

33

kappa, dynorphin

inhibitory decreases caMP

34

mu, enkelphins and endorphins

2nd messenger, triggered potassium channel

35

what are the clinical characteristics of parkinson's disease

tremos, kradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability

36

lewy bodies are characteristic of what disease ?

parkinson's disease

37

loss of what is characteristic of parkinson's disease

substantia nigra

38

what commonly coexists with parkinson's disease

alzheimer disease

39

where is dopamine found

midbrain, substansia nigra, pars compacta and ventral tegmental area

40

main targets of dopamine

striatum, limbic cortex, amygdala, nucleus acumbens, prefrontal cortex (D1-5), movements, initiative, working memory

41

what is the function of dopamine

movements, initative and working memory

42

substantia nigra pars compact pathway

mesostraital (migrostraital) to straitum (putamen and caudate

43

what is the mesolimbic pathway

VTA to limbic (cingulate corttex)

44

mesocortical pathway

VTA to cortex (prefrontal, and entorhinal)

45

negative symptoms of schinzoprhenia are from

mesocritcal pathway

46

cognitive aspects of parkinsons is daamge to what

mesocrotical pathway

47

what percentage of nigral cells must be lost before we start showing symptoms of parksinson

80-90%

48

dopamine is synthesized from

phenylalanine to tyrosine to dopa to dopamine

49

most common treatment for Parkinson's disease

L dopa given with carbidopa

50

can DA cross bbb

NO

51

can L dopa cross the BBB

YES

52

function of carbidopa

blocks the conversion of L dopa to DA but does NOT cross BBB thus blocks conversion of L dopa to DA outside of the brain

53

Dopamine receptor agonists

bromocriptine

54

blocks degradation of dopamine (COMT I)

tolcapone, entacopone

55

blcoks degradation of dopamine (MAOI)

deprenyl and selegiline

56

___is a drug used to treat hypertension that inhibits dopamine stroage

reserptine

57

D2 receptor antagonists that treat are used as antipsychotics but cause parksinon like symptoms

chlorpromazine, loxapine and halperidol

58

what is a side effect of L-Dopa

hallucinations

59

action of amphetamines on DA

increase release

60

action of cocaine and tricyclic antidepressants on DA

blocks the reuptake of DA

61

D3 + D5 project to

hypothalamus

62

D1-D2 project to

corpus striatum

63

_______and ______are important for basal ganglia function

dopamine and acetylcholine

64

two environmental toxins thought to cause Parkinson's disease

paraquat and manganese

65

what are the positive symptoms of schizoprenia

hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior

66

what are the negative symptoms of schizoprenia

social withdrawal, emotional blunting

67

enlarged ventricles is indicative of

schizophrenics

68

what neurotransmitters have been indicated in neurotransmitters

AcH, DA, serotonin, GABA and Glu

69

excess activiation of D2 receptors indicates

schizpprhenia

70

schizoprehnia occurs via the

mesolimbic pathway which projects to the cinglate cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygala, hipocampus, and parahippocampal gyrys, and meidal orbital frontal cortex

71

serotoninc cell bodies are located

midbrain and pons: raphe nuclei

72

main target of serotonin

entire CNS

73

function of serotonin

mood elevation

74

function of melatonin

regulates endocrine rhythms

75

both melatonin and serotonin are derived from

tryptophan

76

what are the structural abnormlaities in the medial temporal lobe in schizophrenics

altered orientation of the hippocampal pyramidal cells which affects the molecules involved in cell migration and adhesion during brain development, and enlarged ventricles

77

typical antipsychotics

target D2 receptors but are not specific and can cause parkinsonion symptoms

78

atypical antipsychotics do wha t

inhibit 5Ht2 receptors (much better tolerated)

79

5Ht1a agonist

novel anxiolytics

80

Ht1 bdf agonists

migraine headaches

81

5 HT2 ac agonists

hallucinations

82

5 Ht2 ac antagonists

antipsychotics

83

5Ht2b agonists

cardiotoxic

84

5Ht3 antagonists

antinasua

85

ssri's

antidepressants, anxiolytics and anorexics

86

MAOaI

antideperessens, elevates NE

87

where is the MT1 receptor

pars tuberalis of pituitary gland, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of hypothalamus

88

where is the MT2 receptor

mainly in retina

89

where is Noreepinephrine found

pons: locus cereleus and lateral tegmental area

90

function of NE

alertness and mood elevation

91

Dopamine can form

NE and Epi

92

function of tyrosine hydroxylase

converts tyrosine to L dopa

93

function of DOPA decarboxylase

converts L dopa to dopamine, requires vitamin B6, drug a methyldopa inhibits this enzyme

94

function of dopmain beta hydroxylase

converts dopamine to NE (requires vitamin C)

95

PNMT function

converts NE to epi (induced by glucocorticoids as part of Epi stress response and requires SAM as a cofactor

96

Dopamine is broken down into

DOPAC, 3MT and HVA

97

what is function of MAP on DA

converts it to DOPAC

98

function of COMT on DA

converts to 3MT

99

MAO converts 3MT t

HVA

100

COMT converts DOPAC to

HVA

101

Epi is broken down by COMT to create ________ and further broke down by MAO to create _______. Also is broken down by MAO to create ____ which is further broken down to _______by COMT

MET, VMA
MA, VMA

102

NE is broken down by MAO to form ______ and broken down by COMT to form

NM

103

NM can be broken down by MAO to form

VMA

104

where is histamine found

hypothalamus: tuberomamillary nucleus; midbrain, reticular formation

105

function of histamine

alertness

106

histamine is synthesized from

histidine (histidine decarboxylase)

107

where are H2 receptors found ?

stomach

108

H3 are

primarily autoreceptors and may act presynpatic inhibitory receptors

109

H4 recceptors are primarily found where

bone marrow and white blood cells