Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (14):
Specialized epithelial differentiation.
Treat AML subtype M3.
Nyctalopia; xerosis cutis; alopecia; keratomalacia; immune suppression.
Arthralgias, skin changes, pseudotumor cerebri, teratogenic.
dehydrogenase reactions (alpha-ketoglutarate, transketolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase.
Wernicke-Korsakof (confusion, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia + confabulation, memory loss. Damage to medial dorsal nucleus of thalamus, mammillary bodies).
Dry beriberi (polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting).
Wet beriberi (high-output cardiac failure, edema).
flavins FAD and FMN in redox reaction.
Cheilosis, corneal vascularization.
NAD and NADP in redox.
From tryptophan (requires B2 and B6 for synthesis).
Lowers VLDL and raises HDL.
Pellagra (diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis) r/o carcinoid syndrome 2/2 increased tryptophan metabolism or isoniazid (2/2 decreased B6).
Facial flushing (2/2/ prostaglandin), hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia.
Co-A + FA synthase.
Dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency.
Transamination (as pyridoxal phosphate), decarboxylation, glycogen phosphorylase.
Synthesis of cystathione, heme, niacin, histamine, and NTs (5-HT, Epi, NE, DA, GABA).
Convulsions, hyperirritabiliy, peripheral neuropathy, sideroblastic anemias.
-Pyruvate to oxaloacetate (Pyruvate carboxylase)
-Acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA (acetyl-CoA carboxylase)
-Propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA (propionyl-CoA carboxylase).
Dermatitis, alopecia, enteritis.
2/2 raw egg whites or Abx.
Coenzyme for 1-carbon transfer/methylation.
Synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA/RNA.
Macrocytic, magaloblastic anemia . Hypersegmented PMNs; glossitis.
Labs: increased homocysteine, normal methylmalonic acid.
Cofactor for homocyseine methyltransferase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase.
Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia; hypersegmented PMNs; paresthesias, subacute combined degeneration.
Labs: increases serum homocysteine and methylmalonic acid.
Antioxidant. Abosorption of Fe (reduces it to 2+ state).
Hydroxylation of proline/lysine in collagen synthesis.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DA to NE).
Scurvy (swollen gums, subperiosteal hemorrhages, corkscrew hair), weakened immune response.
N/V, diarrhea, fatigue, calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.
Can increase iron toxicity in predisposed.
D2 = ergocalciferol (from plants)
D3 = cholecalciferol (milk or sun-exposed skin).
25-OH D3 = storage form.
1,25 (OH)2 D3 (calcitriol) = active form.
Increased intestinal absorption of Ca2+ and phosphate. Increase bone mineralization.
Rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults.
Hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, loss of appetite, stupor.
Seen in sarcoidosis.
Antioxidant of membranes.
Can enhance anticoagulant effects of warfarin.
Hemolytic anemia, acanthocytosis, muscle weakness, posterior column and spinocerebellar tract demyelination (similar to Friedrich ataxia = ataxia, dysarthria, loss of position/vibration sense).
Cofactor for gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid for blood clotting (factors II, VII, IX, X).