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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (29):
1

Steroid


any of a large class of organic compounds with a characteristic molecular structure containing four rings of carbon atoms (three six-membered and one five). They include many hormones, alkaloids, and vitamins.

2

Waxes

Waxes are a class of chemical compounds that are malleable near ambient temperatures. They are also a type of lipid.

3

Lipid


any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids.

4

Phospholipid


a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule, e.g., lecithin.

5

RNA


ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.

6

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.

7

Nucleotide


a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.

8

Adenopine Triphosphate


a compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups, present in all living tissue. The breakage of one phosphate linkage (to form adenosine diphosphate, ADP ) provides energy for physiological processes such as muscular contraction.

9

Peptide Bond

A peptide bond (amide bond) is a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.

10

Active Site

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction. The active site consists of residues that form temporary bonds with the substrate (binding site) and residues that catalyse a reaction of that substrate (catalytic site).

11

Enzyme


a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.

12

Polypeptide


a linear organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino-acid residues bonded together in a chain, forming part of (or the whole of) a protein molecule.

13

Substrate


the surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment.
the substance on which an enzyme acts.

14

Amino Acid


a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.

15

Protein

any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies.

16

Hydrolysis


the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.

17

Isomer

1.
CHEMISTRY
each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.

18

Synthesis

the combination of ideas to form a theory or system.
noun: synthesis; plural noun: syntheses
"the synthesis of intellect and emotion in his work"
synonyms:

19

Polymer

Full Definition of POLYMER. : a chemical compound or mixture of compounds formed by polymerization and consisting essentially of repeating structural units. — poly·mer·ic \ˌpä-lə-ˈmer-ik\ adjective.

20

Monomer


a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

21

Dehydration

In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction is usually defined as a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule. Dehydration reactions are a subset of condensation reactions.

22

Condensation Reaction

CHEMISTRY
a reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule, producing a small molecule such as H2O as a byproduct.
noun: condensation reaction

23

Nucleic acid


a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.

24

Polysaccharide


a carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.

25

Disaccharide


any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues.

26

Monosaccharide


any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.

27

Carbohydrate

any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body.
"water-soluble carbohydrates"

28

Macromolecule


a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.

29

Functional Group


a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound.