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Gross Anatomy > Biochemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (23):
1

Plasma membrane

Provides cell boundaries.

Controls transport of molecules.

Has hydrophobic tail.

Cell contact and recognition.

2

Aquaporin

Bidirectional channels that allow water passage.

Abundant in ocular tissues:
Cornea
Lens
Ciliary body epithelia
Retina

3

Cytosol

Liquid/gel like environment in which organelles are suspended.

70-80% water.

Mix of all known biomolecules, monomers, and polymers.

4

Nucleus

Double membrane bound organelle.

Contains nucleolus

Contains chromosomes

Contains chromatin

Preserves genetic information.

5

Nucleolus

In nucleus.

Aggregates rRNA with associated proteins to assemble the ribosomes.

6

Chromosomes

In the nucleus.

Made up by DNA and proteins associated with DNA histones.

Only visible when cell is getting ready for division.

7

Chromatin

Unwound form of the DNA protein complex.

8

Endoplasmic reticulum- ER

Single membrane bound organelle

Rough- with ribosomes
Modifies proteins

Smooth- without ribosomes
Makes lipids

9

Golgi apparatus (AG)

UPS

Sorts, packages, and tags proteins and lipids.

Single membrane bound organelle.

10

Lysosomes

Single membrane bound organelle.

Break down waste and cell debris.

Digest:
Excess or worn out organelles
Food particles
Engulfed viruses or bacteria

11

Peroxisomes

Single membrane bound organelles.

Breakdown molecules by oxidative reactions.
Uric acid
Amino acids
Fatty acids- through B- oxidation

12

Ribosomes

Non membrane bound.

Synthesize the polypeptide chain to make proteins.

13

Centrosomes

Help pull chromosomes apart toward the opposite poles of the cell during cell division.

14

What is the cytoskeleton and what does it consist of?

Provides structural support for proteins.

Maintains cells shape and intracellular movements.

Intermediate filaments
Microfilaments.

15

Intermediate filaments

Part of the cytoskeleton

Few strands fibers protein

ONLY STRUCTURAL ROLE

16

Microfilaments

Part of the cytoskeleton

2 strands actin

Movement, rigidity, and shape.

17

Microtubules

Hallow.
Walls are made of alpha and beta tubulin.

18

Cilia

Microtubule

Many small.

Moves fluids pass the surface.

19

Flagellum

Microtubule

1 big

Moves the cell by wiggling (only the sperm in humans).

20

Tight junctions

Form watertight connections between adjacent cells. Proteins claudins and occludins create tight junction adherence.

Prevent material from leaking between cells.
Found in epithelial tissues.

21

Desmosomes

Forms strong spot weld between cells. Created by linkage of cadherins and intermediate filaments.

Joint two adjacent cells together.

Maintain the cells in a sheet like formation in tissues that stretch. Such as skin, heart, muscles.

22

Gap junctions

Protein lined pore allows water and small molecules to pass touching cells.

Transports ions, nutrients, and other substances.

Allows cells to communicate.

23

Characteristics and function of retina cells

Cilia composed of flattened saccules (sacs) and membranous disks.

Function:
Contain the photosensitive compounds reacting to light.