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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (53):
1

Magnesium

Plants need magnesium so they can make chlorophyll
It’s absence leads to chlorosis
It’s in bones and teeth

2

Calcium

Calcium pectate is an important component in middle lamella and deficiency can lead to stunted growth
The main component I teeth and bones
Has an important role in muscle contraction and blood clotting and synaptic transition

3

Phosphate

Found in biological molecules - ATP, nuclei acids, enzymes and some proteins.
Structural role in bones and teeth
Role in phospholipid component of cell membranes
Deficiency in plants results in poor root growth and purple younger leaves.

4

How does water stick together?

By forming hydrogen bonds with other water molecules

5

............allow for the formation of hydrogen bonds.

Polar molecules

6

Hydrogen bonds are ....... but a lot of them form a ...........

1) weak
2) strong lattice framework

7

Why do a lot of chemical compounds dissolve in water?

Because the slightly charged particles of water attract charged ions - breaking apart the compound.

8

Can polar molecules dissolve?

Yes

9

Can non polar molecules dissolve?

No

10

.........properties of lipids means they can’t dissolve in water

Hydrophobic

11

Do the hydrogen atoms of water have a slightly negative or positive charge

Slightly positive

12

Water has a ......

High specific heat capacity

13

What is meant when we say “water has a high specific heat capacity”

This means it takes a lot of energy to heat up and it has to loose a lot to cool down

14

Cohesion and surface tension of water:

The hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules together give water cohesive properties. This means that water can be drawn up the xylem.

15

What is a carbohydrate?

A compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

16

What are the three types of carbohydrate?

1) monosaccharide
2) disaccharide
3) polysaccharide

17

What is a monosaccharide

It is the simplest form of carbohydrate and is the building blocks for larger carbohydrates

18

Monosaccharides provide cells with an ........... .......... as they act as a ......... .........

1) energy source
2) respiratory substrate

19

What do the names of monosaccharides depend on?

The number of carbon atoms

20

What is glucose

Glucose is a monosaccharides and is the main source of energy in most living cells.

21

What is the difference between alpha glucose and beta glucose?

They are structural isomers as they have the same chemical formula C6H12O6

22

What is galactose?

Galactose is a monosaccharide found in milk. It combines with glucose to form the disaccharide lactose.

23

What is fructose?

Fructose is a monosaccharide. It is a very sweet sugar. It combines with glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose

24

What is the usually structure of a monosaccharide?

Ring structure

25

What is an example of a pentose?

Glucose

26

What Are disaccharides?

Disaccharides are the product of 2 monosaccharides joining together

27

What is the reaction called when forming a disaccharide?

Condensation reaction
Or
Anabolism ( making bigger molecules)

28

What is the bond called that is formed between two monosaccharides when forming a disaccharide?

Glycosidic bond

29

Glucose + fructose ->

Sucrose

30

Glucose + galactose —>

Lactose

31

Glucose + glucose —>

Maltose

32

Are disaccharides water soluble?

Yes

33

Disaccharides are More suitable for ....... and ....... than monosaccharides

Transport and storage

34

Condensation reactions always form.....

Water

35

What is the opposite of a condensation reaction

Hydrolysis

36

What is hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is a catabolism which involves the chemical insertion of a water molecule

37

What is a polymer?

Large molecules made up of many smaller identical molecules (monomers) binder together.

38

What are polysaccharides?

Polymers produced by joining many monosaccharides together.

39

What are the two functions of polysaccharides?

1) storage
2) structural

40

What is starch?

A storage polysaccharide formers from the monomer alpha glucose.
It is the main carbohydrate reserve in plants

41

What is starch made up of?

Amylose (80%) And amylopectin (20%)

42

Amylose :

Contains 1,4 glycosidic bonds
Linear molecule that could to form helix (compact)

43

Amylopectin:

Contains 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds
Branches molecule

44

What are the three fracture of starch?

Compact
Insoluble - osmotically inert
Readily converted to sugars

45

What is glycogen?

Storage polysaccharide found in animal cells made of the monomer alpha glucose.

46

What bonds does glycogen contain?

1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds meaning it is highly branched

47

What is the advantage of glycogen being highly branched?

More glucose can be accessed quickly to support our higher metabolic rate

48

What is cellulose?

A structural polysaccharide in plant cell walls composed of the monomer beta glucose.

49

What is the structure of cellulose?

Long straight chained polymer, the parallel chains are cross linked with hydrogen bonds to form microfibrils. The alternate molecule in the chain are rotated 180%.

50

What are the two types of lipid?

1) triglycerides
2) phospholipids

51

What are triglycerides composed of?

Carbon hydrogen oxygen

52

What are phospholipids composed of?

Carbon hydrogen oxygen phosphorus

53

Are triglycerides polymers?

No, they are composed of fatty acids and glycerol which are not similar molecules