Biodiversity and classification of microorganisms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biodiversity and classification of microorganisms Deck (92):
1

The system according to which all living organisms are classified into Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia

five-kingdom system

2

Organisms without a true nucleus

prokaryotes

3

Organisms with true nucleus

eukaryotes

4

Microscopic forms of life including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protists

microorganisms

5

General term for organisms causing diseases

pathogens

6

General term for any disease caused by a microorganism

infectious disease

7

Only characteristic of life seen in viruses

reproduction

8

A virus that infects a bacterial cell

bacteriophage

9

Characteristic of viruses indicating that is has no nucleus, cytoplasm or organelles

acelluler

10

Types of parasites, like viruses, that can only reproduce in living cells

obligate intracellular parasites

11

Smallest and simplest living organisms

bacteria

12

Kingdom under which bacteria are classified

Monera

13

Bacteria that can only live in the presence of oxygen

aerobic bacteria

14

Bacteria that can live in the absence of oxygen

anaerobic bacteria

15

Four different shapes in which bacteria occur

spherical rod-shaped spiral-shaped comma-shaped

16

The mode of nutrition in bacteria where they produce their own organic substances by photosynthesis

autotrophic

17

Type of heterotrophic bacteria that obtain their food from living organisms

parasitic bacteria

18

Type of heterotrophic bacteria that obtain their food from dead organic material

saprophytic bacteria

19

Type of heterotrophic bacteria that live in a symbiotic relationship with another organism where both benefit in the relationship

mutualistic bacteria

20

Types of asexual reproduction that occurs in bacteria

binary fission

21

Kingdom under which protozoans, algae, slime and water moulds are classified.

Protista

22

The way in which animal-like protozoans ingest their food

phagocytosis

23

The kingdom to which Rhizopus (bread moulds) belongs

Fungi

24

The mass of interwoven filaments which form the vegetative body of Rhizopus

mycelium

25

Characteristic of Rhizopus which indicates that no true roots, stems or leaves can be distinguished.

thallus

26

Hyphae or Rhizopus that branch horizontally on the surface of the substrate

runners/stolons

27

Branches of stolon of Rhizopus that penetrate the substrate and anchor the mycellium

rhizoids

28

Hyphae of Rhizopus that grow up vertically and develop sporangia on their tips

sporangiophores

29

A structure in which asexual spores develop

sporangium

30

The phenomenon where hyphae have no cross walls

aseptate

31

A cell/part of an organism that has many nuclei in a common cytoplasm, without any cross-walls

coenocyte

32

The mode of life of a fungus that causes athlete's foot

parasitic fungus

33

Process of asexual reproduction occurring in multi-cellular fungi

spore formation

34

The first link of a food chain of which autotrophic bacteria form part

producers

35

Process during which water, carbon dioxide, ammonia and heat energy are released into the soil, water and air and in which bacteria play a roll

decomposition

36

Nutrient cycle in which free-living soil bacteria and nodule bacteria play a role

nitrogen cycle

37

The group bacteria which converts nitrites to nitrates

nitrifying bacteria

38

The group of bacteria which converts ammonia and nitrates to free nitrogen in the atmosphere

denitrifying bacteria

39

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria which live mutualistically in the root nodules of legumes

nodule bacteria

40

Bacteria which live mutualistically in the human gut and produce vitamin K

Escherichia coli

41

Sexually transmitted disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus

AIDS

42

The immune cells in the human body infected by the HI-virus

CD4-cells (remember 4 is little.........)

43

Conditions that attack the body when the immune system is weak

opportunistic infections

 

44

The final stage of HIV infection

AIDS

45

Drugs that decrease the viral load and give the immune system a chance to recover

antiretroviral drugs

46

The infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis

tuberculosis (TB)

47

The body fluid in which the bacteria of a TB infected person occurs.

saliva

48

Mediciation used to treat TB

antibiotics

49

Vaccine against TB for babies given shortly after birth, to provide immunity during childhood.

BCG-vaccine

50

Phenomenon where TB bacteria do not respond to medication

drug resistance

51

Bacteria that are even resistant to the medication used to treat MDR-TB

extreme drug resistant TB-bacteria

52

The most common opportunistic infection and cause of death of many HIV+-patients

tuberculosis (TB)

53

A parasitic disease caused by a protist of the genius Plasmodium

malaria

54

The insect responsible for the transmission for the parasite that causes malaria

female Anopheles mosquito

55

An organism, usually an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another

vector

56

The vector of the malaria parasite

female Anopheles mosquito

57

The organ in the human body in which malaria parasites multiply

liver

58

A condition caused by the bursting of red blood cells during multiplication of the malaria parasites.

anaemia

59

A condition which occurs when complications, e.g. cerebral damage, develop due to malaria.

cerebral malaria

60

Anti-malaria drug derived from the bark of the cinchona tree.

quinine

61

Anit-malaria drug derived from a herb           Artemisia annua.

artemisinin

62

Pesticide used successfully in the fight against malaria.

DDT

63

An insecticide treated barrier, which hangs from the ceiling and covers the entire bed, used to keep out malaria-infected mosquitoes

mosquito net

64

A fungul infection caused by Candida species

candidiasis/trush

65

Part of the human body that is affected by      Candida infection

mucous membranes, skin

66

When long-term antibiotics are used this type of medication should be taken to replenish the benficial bacteria in the alimentary canal.

probiotics

67

The way in which a plant/animal protects itself from pathogenic viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi.

immune response

68

           The first line of defence, in the absence of                      immunisation, against pathogens which              enter the body.

natural immunity

69

Immune response occuring when pathogens penetrate the firts line of natural immunity

aquired immunity response

70

Blood cells which destroy the pathogens during the aquired immune response

white blood cells/leucocytes

71

The only immune response occuring in plants

natural immune response

72

Natural response in the body when the body temperature increases to prevent the multiplication and spread of pathogens

fever

73

Two types of white blood cells which play a role in the active immune response.

lymphocytes

phagocytes

74

Two types of lymphocytes which play the most important role in the active immune response

B-lymphocytes

T-lymphocytes

 

75

Structures formed by B-lymphocytes which mark pathogens and cause them to agglutinate (clump) and burst

antibodies

76

The type of white blood cells that recognise and destroy the body's cells that are infected by a virus as the antibodies cannot reach the viruses within the host cells.

T-lymphocytes

77

White blood celss that engulf pathogens

phagocytes

78

Process through which phagocytes engulf pathogens

Phagocytosis

79

The administration of a vaccine to develop immunity from a disease

immunisation

80

Dead or weakened form of pathogens used during vaccination

vaccine

81

Type of naturally acquired immunity obtained by antibodies tranferred from mother to foetus through the placenta

passive

82

Type of naturally acquired immunity obtained through contact with pathogens which simulate the immune system to produce antibodies.

active

83

Type of acquired immunity that only develops by deliberate actions like immunisation

artificially

84

Chemical substances that destroy pathogenic bacteria

antibiotics

85

First antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming

penicillin

86

Genetic changes taht result in antibiotic resistant bacteria

mutation

87

Process through which human insulin is synthetically produced by genetic engineering

recombinant DNA technology

88

The new DNA formed when a gene from the DNA of one organism is extracted and inserted into the DNA of another organism

recombinant DNA

89

Enzymes used, in the process of producing insulin, to cut the plasmids of E.coli bacteria

restriction enzymes

90

Disease treated with insulin

Diabetes mellitus

91

Ancient way in which living organisms were used to develop new products

traditional biotechnology

92

Traditional process used in the production of beer, wine and cheese

anaerobic respiration/fermentation