The system according to which all living organisms are classified into Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
Organisms without a true nucleus
Organisms with true nucleus
Microscopic forms of life including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protists
General term for organisms causing diseases
General term for any disease caused by a microorganism
Only characteristic of life seen in viruses
A virus that infects a bacterial cell
Characteristic of viruses indicating that is has no nucleus, cytoplasm or organelles
Types of parasites, like viruses, that can only reproduce in living cells
obligate intracellular parasites
Smallest and simplest living organisms
Kingdom under which bacteria are classified
Bacteria that can only live in the presence of oxygen
Bacteria that can live in the absence of oxygen
Four different shapes in which bacteria occur
spherical rod-shaped spiral-shaped comma-shaped
The mode of nutrition in bacteria where they produce their own organic substances by photosynthesis
Type of heterotrophic bacteria that obtain their food from living organisms
Type of heterotrophic bacteria that obtain their food from dead organic material
Type of heterotrophic bacteria that live in a symbiotic relationship with another organism where both benefit in the relationship
Types of asexual reproduction that occurs in bacteria
Kingdom under which protozoans, algae, slime and water moulds are classified.
The way in which animal-like protozoans ingest their food
The kingdom to which Rhizopus (bread moulds) belongs
The mass of interwoven filaments which form the vegetative body of Rhizopus
Characteristic of Rhizopus which indicates that no true roots, stems or leaves can be distinguished.
Hyphae or Rhizopus that branch horizontally on the surface of the substrate
Branches of stolon of Rhizopus that penetrate the substrate and anchor the mycellium
Hyphae of Rhizopus that grow up vertically and develop sporangia on their tips
A structure in which asexual spores develop
The phenomenon where hyphae have no cross walls
A cell/part of an organism that has many nuclei in a common cytoplasm, without any cross-walls
The mode of life of a fungus that causes athlete's foot
Process of asexual reproduction occurring in multi-cellular fungi
The first link of a food chain of which autotrophic bacteria form part
Process during which water, carbon dioxide, ammonia and heat energy are released into the soil, water and air and in which bacteria play a roll
Nutrient cycle in which free-living soil bacteria and nodule bacteria play a role
The group bacteria which converts nitrites to nitrates
The group of bacteria which converts ammonia and nitrates to free nitrogen in the atmosphere
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria which live mutualistically in the root nodules of legumes
Bacteria which live mutualistically in the human gut and produce vitamin K
Sexually transmitted disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus
The immune cells in the human body infected by the HI-virus
CD4-cells (remember 4 is little.........)
Conditions that attack the body when the immune system is weak
The final stage of HIV infection
Drugs that decrease the viral load and give the immune system a chance to recover
The infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
The body fluid in which the bacteria of a TB infected person occurs.
Mediciation used to treat TB
Vaccine against TB for babies given shortly after birth, to provide immunity during childhood.
Phenomenon where TB bacteria do not respond to medication
Bacteria that are even resistant to the medication used to treat MDR-TB
extreme drug resistant TB-bacteria
The most common opportunistic infection and cause of death of many HIV+-patients
A parasitic disease caused by a protist of the genius Plasmodium
The insect responsible for the transmission for the parasite that causes malaria
female Anopheles mosquito
An organism, usually an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another
The vector of the malaria parasite
female Anopheles mosquito
The organ in the human body in which malaria parasites multiply
A condition caused by the bursting of red blood cells during multiplication of the malaria parasites.
A condition which occurs when complications, e.g. cerebral damage, develop due to malaria.
Anti-malaria drug derived from the bark of the cinchona tree.
Anit-malaria drug derived from a herb Artemisia annua.
Pesticide used successfully in the fight against malaria.
An insecticide treated barrier, which hangs from the ceiling and covers the entire bed, used to keep out malaria-infected mosquitoes
A fungul infection caused by Candida species
Part of the human body that is affected by Candida infection
mucous membranes, skin
When long-term antibiotics are used this type of medication should be taken to replenish the benficial bacteria in the alimentary canal.
The way in which a plant/animal protects itself from pathogenic viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi.
The first line of defence, in the absence of immunisation, against pathogens which enter the body.
Immune response occuring when pathogens penetrate the firts line of natural immunity
aquired immunity response
Blood cells which destroy the pathogens during the aquired immune response
white blood cells/leucocytes
The only immune response occuring in plants
natural immune response
Natural response in the body when the body temperature increases to prevent the multiplication and spread of pathogens
Two types of white blood cells which play a role in the active immune response.
Two types of lymphocytes which play the most important role in the active immune response
Structures formed by B-lymphocytes which mark pathogens and cause them to agglutinate (clump) and burst
The type of white blood cells that recognise and destroy the body's cells that are infected by a virus as the antibodies cannot reach the viruses within the host cells.
White blood celss that engulf pathogens
Process through which phagocytes engulf pathogens
The administration of a vaccine to develop immunity from a disease
Dead or weakened form of pathogens used during vaccination
Type of naturally acquired immunity obtained by antibodies tranferred from mother to foetus through the placenta
Type of naturally acquired immunity obtained through contact with pathogens which simulate the immune system to produce antibodies.
Type of acquired immunity that only develops by deliberate actions like immunisation
Chemical substances that destroy pathogenic bacteria
First antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming
Genetic changes taht result in antibiotic resistant bacteria
Process through which human insulin is synthetically produced by genetic engineering
recombinant DNA technology
The new DNA formed when a gene from the DNA of one organism is extracted and inserted into the DNA of another organism
Enzymes used, in the process of producing insulin, to cut the plasmids of E.coli bacteria
Disease treated with insulin
Ancient way in which living organisms were used to develop new products
Traditional process used in the production of beer, wine and cheese