Biological Bases of Bx: The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biological Bases of Bx: The Nervous System Deck (127):
1

Functions of the prefrontal lobe

Executive functions, including organizational ability, decision making, problem solving

2

Prefrontal association cortex

Control & regulation of cognition and planning. Damage associated with decreased initiative, deficient self awareness, & concrete thinking

3

Corpus callosum

Nerve fibers connecting 2 hemispheres of the brain

4

Frontal Lobe contains

Prefrontal cortex, brocas area

5

Iconic memory

memory of visual stimuli; temporary visual impression after the stimulus is removed

6

Apperceptive agnosia

Inability to recognize familiar objects by sight, especially in low light, but may still identify object by touch

7

2 Main Divisions of the Nervous System

Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain & Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Nerves that go to & from CNS (cranial nerves, spinal nerves, peripheral ganglia)

8

2 Main Subdivisions of the Peripheral Nervous System
(PNS)
Hint: Nerves connected to all bodily functions, both voluntary & automatic

Somatic Nervous System (voluntary movement)
Autonomic Nervous System (automatic bodily fxs)

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Somatic Nervous System

Sends & receives sensory msgs controlling voluntary motor movement of the skeletal muscles

10

2 subdivisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
Hint: Body automatically resp to stress and then calms down

Sympathetic Nervous System (body's mobilizing system)
Parasympathetic Nervous System (body's energy conserving system)

11

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): what does it control & primary function

Controls automatic bodily functions of the muscles & glands, like heart rate, breathing, digestion, etc
Function: maintain homeostasis within body

12

Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
Hint: Sympathetic to stress, so body mobilizes to respond

Body's mobilizing/fight or flight system, takes over in times of stress
Releases hormones to inc resp, HR, BP; decr digestion & elimination

13

Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)
Hint: Biofeedback helps to access PNS; stress response is PARAlyzed

Body's energy conserving system, dominant during relaxation
Slows HR, resp, BP, etc

14

2 Main Divisions of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Brain
Spinal Cord

15

____ neurons, also known as ____ neurons, carry info into the CNS, while ___ neurons, also known as ____ neurons, carry info away from CNS to the muscles & glands

Sensory; Afferent (Hint: senses AFFect the brain)
Motor; Efferent (Hint: info has to motor to muscles in order to EFFect movement)

16

4 Regions of the Spinal Cord from top to bottom

1. Cervical (C1-C7)
2. Thoracic (T1-T12)
3. Lumbar (L1-L5)
4. Sacral (S1)

17

How does spinal cord damage impact body functioning?

Muscles served by section of the spinal cord below the damage do not function normally

18

____ results from severing of spinal cord between __ and __ , leading to paralysis in all 4 limbs

Quadriplegia; C1 and C5

19

_____, or paralysis of the legs, & partial paralysis in the arms results from severing of spinal cord between __ or __

Paraplegia, C6 or C7

20

___ results for severing the spinal cord from T1 on down

Paraplegia

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Paresis

Muscle weakness resulting from incomplete severing of the spinal cord

22

True or False: A man with paralysis may still be able to achieve an erection

True,as reflexes (like arousal & ejaculation) can remain intact with spinal cord damage.

23

3 Major Divisions of the Brain

Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brain Stem

24

2 Layers of the Cerebrum
Hint: Like an orange

Cerebral Cortex
Subcortical Areas

25

Fx of Cerebrum

Complex thought, perception, action

26

How is the cerebral cortex divided?

Left & Right Hemisphere
Each Hemisphere divided by 4 lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

27

How are the left & right hemispheres of the brain connected?

Band of nerve fibers, called corpus callosum
*Left hem controls right side of body, right hem controls left side of body

28

Central sulcus

The groove, or sulci, that separates the frontal & parietal lobes

29

Lateral sulcus

The groove, or sulci, that separates the temporal lobe from the frontal & parietal lobes

30

What does Left Hemisphere control
Hint: 2 Ls; EPPP success anchored here

LANGUAGE: reading, writing, speaking, naming, motor control
LOGIC: rational, analytical, logical, abstract thinking

31

Impact of damage to the left hemisphere

Speech disorders (aphasia), other lang probs (agraphia, anomia), motor disorder (apraxia), difficulties w/right side of body

32

What does Right Hemisphere control?

Perception
Visual spatial reasoning (even body image)
Creativity (art, music)
Intuition
Emotion (comprehension & expression)

33

Aphasia

Inability to understand or produce language

34

Agnosia

Inability to recognize objects or perceive stimuli

35

Agraphia

Inability to write

36

Alexia

Problems w/reading

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Anomia

Inability to name objects

38

Acalculia

problems doing math/calculation

39

Proprioception

Ability to locate one's body parts in space

40

Impact of damage to the right hemisphere?

Visual perceptual disturbances
Prosopagnosia
Agnosia for musical sounds
Affective abnormalities (indiff, euphoria, hysteria, depr, mania, disinhibition, impulsivity, sexual bx)

41

Prosopagnosia

Inability to recognize familiar faces

42

approx. how much of the pop is left hem dominant?

97%

43

3 Divisions of the Frontal Lobes

1. Prefrontal Cortex
2. Premotor Area
3. Motor Area

44

Fxs of the Prefrontal Cortex
Hint: Makes us who we are, separates humans from other animals

Personality, Emotionality, Inhibition, Planning, Abstract thinking, Judgment, Executive cognitive skills

45

Function of Premotor Area

Planning Movement

46

Fx of Motor Area

Instigate voluntary muscle movement

47

Impact of Damage to Frontal Lobes

Loss of mvmt/paralysis, changes in personality/temperament, emotional lability, perseveration, inattention, poor problem solving, Broca's aphasia
Usually result of TBI, stroke, Tumor

48

Broca's Aphasia

Inability to express language

49

Fx of Parietal Lobes

Primary sensory areas (pain, heat, proprioception)
Enable integration sensations of touch to create 3 dimensional experience of objects (shape, size, wt, texture)

50

Key Role of Right Parietal Lobe

Directing Attention
Visual & spatial skills

51

Key Role of Left Parietal Lobe

Overlearned motor routines
Linguistic skills- reading, writing, naming objects

52

Impact of damage to the parietal lobes

Anomia, agraphia, alexia, acalculia, difficulty drawing objects, difficulty distinguishing rt from lt, lack of awareness of body parts, probs w/hand eye coordination
Most often caused by stroke

53

4 Primary Sxs of Gerstmann's Syndrome

Lesions of the Left Parietal Lobe
Agraphia
Acalculia
Rt-Lft Disorientation
Finger Agnosia (unable to recognize own fingers as part of body)

54

Temporal lobes contain the ___ _____ ____
*Hint: temporal lobes located around the temples, area of the EARS

Primary Auditory Cortex

55

Temporal lobes are also connected to the ___ ____, so they are involved in ___ and ____
*Hint: This system contains amygdala & hippocampus
*Hint: Temporal lobes implicated in temper

Limbic System

56

Fxs of the Temporal Lobe

Hearing
Emotions & Memory (due to connection to Limbic system)
Verbal Memory & Language comprehension (Left Temporal- Wernicke's area)

57

Wernicke's Area

Located in left temporal lobe, involved in verbal memory and language comprehension

58

Broca's Area

Located in Left Frontal Lobe- controls muscles that produce speech

59

Key Role of Left Temporal Lobe
*Hint: Left is for Language

Verbal Memory & Language Comprehension

60

Key Role of Right Temporal Lobe

Visual Memory

61

Impact of Damage to the Temporal Lobes

Aggressive bx, change in sexual bx, interference w/memory, prosopagnosia, problems understanding speech (Wernicke's aphasia)
Most often caused by TBI, stroke, encephalitis

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Wernicke's aphasia

Problems understanding speech

63

Occipital Lobes contain the ___ ___ cortex, which are involved in ___, ___, and _____
*Hint: OCcipital involved in OCular functioning

Primary Visual
Sight, Reading & Visual Images

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Fx of the Occipital Lobes

Sight
Reading
Visual Images

65

Impact of Damage to the Occipital Lobes

Uncommon, usually result of tumor or stroke
Difficulty recognizing drawn objects/recognizing colors
Hallucinations or illusions
Word blindness (can't recognize)
Problems w/reading or writing

66

3 Main Subcortical Brain Areas

Corpus Callosum
Limbic System
Basal Ganglia

67

Fx of Corpus Callosum

Right Hem controls Left side of body (body & sensation)
Left Hem controls Right side of body
Corp call serves as bridge between the 2 hemispheres

68

Split Brain Patients

Corpus callosum severed to reduce epileptic seizures
Opposite side of brain still controls sensory input from opp side of body, but now no communication between hemispheres

69

Classic "heart" study w/split brain patients

Word HEART flashed such that "HE" is seen in Left Visual Field (so processed by Right side of the brain) and "ART" seen by Right Visual Field (so processed by Left side of the brain). Patients unable to verbalize the whole word due to no language in right hem, they were only able to verbalize "ART" because it was processed by lang center of the brain in the left hemisphere

70

Key Roles of Limbic System
*Hint: What do you need to survive?

Primitive brain, SURVIVAL
Influences autonomic nervous system & endocrine system
Emotions
Basic Drives (sex, hunger)
Learning
Olfaction
Memory

71

5 Key Limbic System Structures

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Septum

72

Fx of Thalamus

Sensory relay center, input from all senses, except smell, projects info to appropriate cortical areas
Critical to perception of pain
Abnormalities linked to schiz due to misperception of sensory input

73

5 Fs of the Hypothalamus

Fever
Feeding
Fighting
Falling asleep
Fucking

74

Fx of the Hypothalamus

Connection to endocrine system & autonomic nervous system
Major role is homeostasis, incl temp, hunger, thirst, sex, hormone secretion, aggression, sleep-wake cycle

75

The ____ contains a group of cells, the ___ ___, which are considered the body's circadian clock b/c regulates sleep wake cycle

Hypothalamus; Suprachiasmic Nucleus (SCN)

76

Influence of hypothalamus on pituitary gland

Hypothal secretes hormones (thryotropin releasing hormone & corticotropin releasing hormone) that stimulates pituitary gland to secrete its own hormones (growth hormone, thyroid stimulating, adrenocorticotropic), which then activate other glands (thyroid, pancreas)

77

Fx of Hippocampus
*Hint: If you saw a HIPPO on CAMPUS, you would REMEMBER him

Consolidation of conscious memories, stores new information and events as lasting memories
Short term memory --> long term memory

78

fx of Amygdala
Hint: A is for Aggression

Attaches emotions to sensory input, strong connection to fear/startle, aggression, emotional memory
Determines level of threat
Involved in memory of fear (PTSD)

79

The ____ has been linked to PTSD due to involvement in memory of fear

Amygdala

80

Kluver Bucy Syndrome

Complete removal of the amygdala results in placidity, apathy, hyerphagia, hypersexuality, agnosias

81

Fx of Septum
*Septum allows you to Simmer down

Moderates or decreases aggression; damage leads to Septal Rage Syndrome

82

Fx of Basal Ganglia
Hint: He is Gangly in his Movement, which he tries to INHIBIT

Regulate movement & establish posture
Sends info to the premotor & primary motor cortex
INHIBIT movement so we can be still and maintain posture

83

5 Nuclei of the Basal Ganglia

Caudate Nucleus
Putamen
Substantia Nigra
Globus Pallidus
Subthalamic nucleus

84

2 Main Problems assoc with dysfunction of Basal Ganglia

Extraneous unwanted muscle movements (Huntingtons)
Difficulty w/intended movement (Parkinsons)

85

Huntington's Disease

Result of degeneration of Caudate Nucleus & Putamen
produces thrusting movements of face & limbs

86

Parkinson's Disease

Result of slow & steady loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowed mvmt)

87

2 psychiatric disorders where Basal Ganglia are implicated

Tourette Syndrome
OCD

88

Cerebellum: Location & Function
*Hint: BELLUM is for Balance

2nd largest struc in the brain, base of brain, behind brain stem
Responsible for smooth movement & coordinating motor activity
Maintain BALANCE & Equilibrium

89

Ataxia

Sx of cerebellar disease, lack of coordination of voluntary mvmts in the absence of weakness or sensory loss

90

Symptoms of Cerebellar Damage

incorrect timing of muscle activation, disequilibrium, vertigo, inability to grab objects, probs coordinating fine movements

91

Fx of the Brain Stem

Most primitive part of the brain, extension of the spinal cord
12 cranial nerves begin in brain stem

92

3 Major Brain Stem Areas

Pons
Medulla
Reticular Formulation

93

Pons & Medulla

Pons- Upper portion of brain stem
Medulla- Bottom of brain stem
Involved in sleep, respiration, movement, & cardio activity

94

Damage to the medulla or pons can lead to failure of bodily fxs and ___

death

95

Reticular Formation

Interconnected nuclei in the brain stem
Awareness, attention, sleep

96

Reticular Activating System

Projects from brain stem to thalamus, involved in sleep wake cycle
Filter for incoming sensory info
Mediates alertness

97

What are neurons?

Cells of the brain & spinal cord, communicate w/one another and to muscles, glands, organs by releasing tiny amounts of neurotransmitters

98

3 parts of Neurons

Dendrites
Cell Body/Soma
Axon

99

Dendrites

Receive info by capturing neurotrans released into the synaptic cleft
Neuron may have thousands of dendrites

100

Soma/Cell body

Integrates info from dendrites
Contains nucleus, which regulates all cell activity & controls hereditary charac (DNA)

101

Axon

Tube extending from soma that transmits info

102

Neurons communicate to one another through ___ ___, which is an electrochemical impulse

Action Potential

103

What happens to chemicals inside/outside of neuron during action potential?

At Rest: Excess of sodium outside cell body, Excess Potassium inside
During Action potential: Potassium rushes out, Sodium rushes into cell and through axons, triggering release of neurotrans by the terminal buttons
Those neurotrans cross synaptic cleft to bind to receptor sites of next neurons & reuptake occurs

104

All or None Principle of Neuronal Firing

A neuron will either by sufficiently stimulated to fire to its fullest extent, or it won't fire at all

105

Absolute Refractory Period

Period of time after firing that a neuron absolutely cannot fire, followed by a relative refractory period where only very intense stimulation triggers firing
Provides time for neuron to return to resting state with excess potassium inside and sodium outside

106

2 categories of Neurotransmitters

Classical & Peptide

107

Agonist

Any Substance that enhances the effect of a neurotransmitter

108

Antagonist

any substance that inhibits the neurotrans effect

109

2 classifications of Neurotransmitters (Impact on Action Potential)

Excitatory- increase likelihood of action potential
Inhibitory- decrease likelihood of action potential

110

Classical Neurotransmitters
Hint: Classical CASA

Catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine)
Acetylcholine
Serotonin
Amino Acids

111

Fx of Acetylcholine (Ach)

Most common neurotransmitter
Voluntary Movement
Memory & Cognition

112

The neurotransmitter ____ is prevalent in the hippocampus, which explains its involvement in Alzheimer's Disease

Acetylcholine

113

2 Principle Catecholamines
Hint: CATs, NOt DOgs

Norepinephrine
Dopamine
Synthesized from dietary tyrosine & phenylanine

114

Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

Proposes that schiz is result of excess dopamine, thus antipsychotics have been dopamine antagonists
However, newer antipsychotics do not primarily work on dopamine so hypothesis has been questioned

115

Role of dopamine in Parkinson's Disease

Degeneration of neurons in substantia nigra results in decrease in available dopamine to basal ganglia. So L-Dopa or levodopa (a precursor to dop) treats parkinsons

116

Norepinephrine

Significantly involved in mood
Also implicated in pain, sleep

117

Catecholamine Hypothesis of Affective Disorders
Hint: Cat lady gets more cats to feel better

Too little catecholamines, esp Norepinephrine- low mood
Too much- Mania

118

Serotonin (5-HT)

Significantly involved in mood disorders
Produced by dietary mod of tryptophan
Aggression, sex, sleep onset, pain percep, possibly schiz

119

Permissive Hypothesis of Serotonin Functioning

proposes 2 steps in the development of mood disorders
1.Deficiency in serotonin
2. Levels of norepinephrine determine whether mania (too much) or depression (too little)

120

3 Main Amino Acids

GABA
Glycine
Glutamate

121

Major Inhibitory Neurotransmitters of the CNS
Hint: 2 Amino Acids makes things AMicable & calm

GABA
Glycine

122

Insufficient levels of GABA have been linked to ___ and ___

Anxiety; Epilepsy

123

Benzodiazapines are ___ ___, where they increase levels of __ to reduce overarousal
*Remember AMino acids make things amicable and calm

GABA agonists; GABA

124

Glutamate

Mediator of fast, excitatory synaptic transmission

125

Peptide Neurotransmitters are long chains of ___ ___, and there are dozens of them.

amino acids

126

2 Endogenous opioids

Peptide neurotrans,
Enkephalins
Endorphins
Help to regulate stress & pain

127

Substance P
*Hint: P regulate Pain

A peptide neurotransmitter involved in pain regulation