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Flashcards in Biological Science Deck (56)
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What are the six kingdoms of life?

  1. Archaebacteria: bacteria-like organisms; little is known about them
  2. Eubacteria: bacteria
  3. Protista: amoebae, some algaes
  4. Fungi: mushrooms, yeast, mold
  5. Plantae: moss, plants
  6. Animalia: mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects


Which English scientist developed early theories about evolution in the 1800s?

Charles Darwin

In 1859 Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species, which introduced concepts such as natural selection and evolution.


___ are the parts of a cell that work together to allow the cell to function properly.


Some organelles include the nucleus, which acts as the brain of the cell, and mitochondria, which take in and process nutrients for the cell.


Some organisms are cold-blooded while others are warm-blooded. What's the difference?

  • Warm-blooded (endothermic) creatures convert food into energy in order to maintain a stable body temperature (through a process called homeostasis). Examples of warm-blooded creatures include mammals and birds.
  • Cold-blooded (ectothermic) creatures convert food to body mass, but their body temperatures vary based on the temperature of the environment. Examples of cold-blooded creatures include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and insects.


What is Dolly the Sheep's claim to fame?

In 1996, Dolly became the first mammal to be cloned. This led to a controversy regarding the ethics of cloning, a subject that is still debated today.


What happens when an animal is cloned?

  1. DNA is extracted from an existing animal.
  2. This DNA is inserted into an egg that has already had its nucleus, or DNA storage area, removed.
  3. This egg is fertilized, and a surrogate carries the fetus to term until it gives birth to a genetic copy of the original animal.


A cold-blooded organism with a backbone, which spends its life both on land and in the water, is called a(n) ___.


  • It is common for amphibians to experience some type of metamorphasis. For example, a tadpole matures into a frog.
  • Amphibians include: frogs, salamanders, and toads


A warm-blooded organism with a backbone, that has hair, is called a ___.


Examples of mammals include bears, mice, whales, and humans.


What are the 12 systems of the human body?

  1. Cardiovascular System
  2. Digestive System
  3. Endocrine System
  4. Immune System
  5. Integumentary System
  6. Lymphatic System
  7. Muscular System
  8. Nervous System
  9. Reproductive System
  10. Respiratory System
  11. Skeletal System
  12. Urinary System

Try using the mnemonic: Sir, My Regular Lesson Is Completely RUINED.


What is the largest bone in the human body?

The femur

The human femur is extremely strong, and can only be broken when great forces are applied to it. A broken femur can take 4-6 months to heal.


What is photosynthesis and how does it work?

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use energy from sunlight to create their food.

  • Water and carbon dioxide are absorbed and stored within a part of plant cells called chloroplasts. 
  • Energy from sunlight converts the water and carbon dioxide to glucose and oxygen. Chlorophyll is the compound that allows plants to grab sunlight.
  • Plants use the glucose as food and emit the oxygen into the atmosphere.


Which human body system is responsible for the ingestion and processing of food?

The Digestive System

  • The stomach and intestines are two of the major organs that comprise the digestive system.
  • A healthy adult human takes approximately 50 hours to digest food, though this varies widely for both different individuals and depending on the type of food consumed!


What is happening to a person's body when they get cancer?

Cancer begins when cells in some part of the body start to grow out of control.

Instead of dying in normal life cycles like normal cells, cancer cells keep growing and can invade other healthy cells. This process can form large concentrations of mutated cells, called tumors, which spread to other parts of the body.

Cancer is the general name used for over 100 different diseases,


What are the chances that a typical man or woman will develop some form of cancer during their lifetimes?

About half of all men and one third of all women are expected to develop some form of cancer during their lifetimes.


What are some major differences between animal cells and plant cells?

Although there are many major differences between plant and animal cells, a few of the major ones include:

  • Plant cells contain organelles called chloroplasts, which are used in the process of photosynthesis to make the plant's food.
  • Plant cells also have a thicker outer cell wall and are always rectangular in shape, whereas animal cells only have a thin outer cell membrane and a rounder shape.


What is the largest living structure?

The Great Barrier Reef

  • Comprised of 3,000 different coral reefs, the Great Barrier Reef spans 133,000 square miles off the coast of Queensland, Australia.
  • The reef has been gradually shrinking, mostly due to global warming and pollution. Some scientists believe it will cease to exist by the middle of this century, although others believe it will regenerate itself.


What factors impact human blood type?

  • Blood type is determined by the antigens on a person's blood cells. Antigens are hooks in a cell's surface that control what enters and exits the cell.
  • Human blood antigens include A, B, and Rh.
  • Antibodies are complex chemicals that can attach to a specific antigen, often to kill a pathogen. People make antibodies for antigens that they do not have. For example, a person with type A blood will produce antibodies for the type B antigen.


What are the human blood groups and blood types?

  • Human blood types include A, B, AB, and O, named for the antigens they contain. These types can be further divided into Rh+ and Rh- based on the presence of the Rh factor.
  • For example, type AB+ contains both A and B antigens, as well as the Rh factor. Type O- contains neither A nor B antigens and has no Rh factor.


When can one person safely receive blood from another?

  • The person receiving blood must not make antibodies for any of the donated blood's antigens.
  • For example, a person with Rh+ blood has Rh antigens but no Rh antibodies. This person can receive Rh+ blood. A person with Rh- blood has no Rh antigens, so he does make Rh antibodies. This person cannot receive Rh+ blood.
  • People with type AB+ blood have A, B, and Rh antigens, so they do not produce any antibodies. They are known as "universal recipients" because they can be given any type of blood.
  • People with type O- blood have no antigens, so they produce A, B, and Rh antibodies. They are known as "universal donors" because they can donate blood to all other individuals.


The design and production of man-made objects inspired by designs found in nature is called ___.


  • An early example of biomimicry is the design of planes based on the flight of birds.
  • A more modern example is the design of velcro in the 1940s, which was based on those burrs that stick to our clothes (and which spread certain plant seeds).


What are carbohydrates and why are they important?

Carbohydrates are organic molecules comprised of oxygen and hydrogen that the body breaks down to produce energy.

  • While carbohydrate intake is part of a balanced diet, consuming too many carbohydrates has been linked to obesity and cancer.
  • Foods high in carbohydrates include: sugar (and sugary foods), cake, cookies, and potatoes.


Which Swedish scientist is most famous for the development of binomial nomenclature, or naming of species types, in the 1700s?

Carl Linnaeus

For example, the binomial nomenclature for a dog is canis familiaris. Canis means dog and familiaris means domestic.


Why are chromosomes important?

Chromosomes are where an organism's DNA is located.

  • Chromosomes are located within the nucleus of cells, and are made up of protein and a single DNA molecule.
  • DNA (dioxyribonucleic acid) is the substance that carries genetic information.
  • When cells divide, chromosomes ensure that our genetic information is transmitted from cell to cell.


What phrase refers to your body's natural ability to regulate and carry out functions over a 24-hour cycle?

Circadian rhythm

Circadian rhythm are physical, mental, and behavioral. They regulate the body's sleeping patterns, temperature, and hormones.  The study of circadian rhythms is called chronobiology/


What is happening to the body of a person who has diabetes?

The body is not producing or processing insulin correctly.

There are two major types of diabetes:

  • Type I: A person with Type I diabetes (aka "juvenile diabetes") is not producing enough insulin for their body.
  • Type II: A person with Type II diabetes (aka "adult onset") does not react to insulin properly. This may result in insulin deficiency.

People with diabetes can lead normal, happy lives. They just need to monitor their blood sugar levels and take insulin if necessary.


Brown eyes, brown hair, and curly hair are all examples of ___ traits, whereas blue eyes, blonde hair, and straight hair are all examples of ___ traits.

dominant; recessive

Dominant traits are more likely to be passed on to future generations, whereas recessive traits are less often passed on.


A cold-blooded organism that uses lungs to breathe and has a backbone and scales is called a ___.


Examples of reptiles include snakes, alligators, and lizards.


What causes farsightedness?

Farsighted vision may be caused by a corneal curve that is too small, or by a having an eye that is too short.

  • People with farsighted vision experience blurred vision when looking at objects that are close to them
  • The medical term for farsightedness is Hyperopia, which means that light entering the eye is focused behind the retina instead of directly onto it.


The human ear serves two main functions – what are they?

  1. Hearing
  2. Balance

While hearing is widely thought to be the only function of the ear, fluid in the inner ear is part of the system that helps us to maintain our balance.


In biology, there are three different types of relationships that can develop between different species. What are these three kinds and how are they different?

  1. Mutualism: both parties benefit
    • Example: bees pollinating flowers
  2. Commensalism: one party benefits, the other neither benefits nor suffers
    • Example: bird living in a tree
  3. Parasitism: one party benefits, the other suffers
    • Example: tick latching onto a human