Flashcards in Biology 1 Keywords Deck (235):
A characteristic that is changed by the environment rather than inherited from your parents.
Organisms have certain characteristics that allow them to survive in particular places. These characteristics are called adaptations.
When the body is dependent on a drug and doesn't work properly without it.
Every gene comes in different types called alleles. So a gene for eye colour may come in a 'blue type' allele and a 'brown type' allele.
Vertebrates that have moist, permeable skin and lay jelly-coated eggs in water.
Antibiotic that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.
Substance that can kill or slow the growth of micro-organisms.
Antibiotic that kills or slows the growth of fungi.
Substance that is used to top the spread of pathogens.
Make food from small molecules using an energy source, such as light in photosynthesis.
Plant hormone that affects the growth and elongation of cells in plants.
The long extension of a neurone that carries an impulse away from the cell body towards other neurones.
Simple organisms consisting of one cell that does not contain a nucleus (singular: bacterium).
Microscopic organism, some kind of which are pathogens, such as Salmonella (plural: bacteria).
System of naming organisms using two Latin words.
The total mass in living organism, using shown as the mass after drying.
Vertebrates that have lungs, feathers and beaks, and lay hard-shelled eggs.
Fungus that damages roses and is killed by sulfur dioxide in the air.
Blood Glucose Regulation
The control of the concentration of glucose in the blood by the body.
Aquatic species that is an indicator of polluted water.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Estimate of how healthy a person's mass is for their height.
A sequence of processes by which carbon moves from the atmosphere, through living and dead organisms, into sediments and into the atmosphere again.
A toxic gas (CO), it is found in tobacco smoke that replaces oxygen in the blood, and so reduces the amount of oxygen carried around the body.
Something that causes cancer, such as tar in tobacco smoke.
Thin layer around a cell that controls what goes into and out of a cell.
Outer stiff part of some cells that helps to support a cell. Plant walls are made out of cellulose.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The spinal cord and brain. These two organs form the main part of the nervous system, processing and controlling the transmission of electrical impulses.
The features of an organism.
Preventing attacks by the use of chemicals. For example, many plants produce chemicals that taste unpleasant and this puts herbivores off eating them.
Bacteria that get the energy they need to make their food from breaking down chemicals; they are producers.
Green disc found in plant cells, which is used to make food for the plant using photosynthesis.
Animals that have a supporting rod along the length of their body. All vertebrates belong to this group. (Also known as Chordates).
A long thread of a molecule called DNA. Each chromosome contains a series of genes along its length.
Damage to the liver caused by drinking large amounts of alcohol over a long time.
The process of sorting organisms into groups based on their characteristics.
Fish that eat dead skin and parasites from the skin of other fish.
When someone is very overweight for their height to an extent that has been shown by doctors to cause health problems. For adults this is defined as having a BMI of over 30.
When organisms need the same resources as each other, they struggle against each other to get those resources.
The amount of a substance dissolved in a certain quantity of liquid (e.g. g/cm3).
An animal, because it consumes other organisms.
When a variable can have any numerical value. Human height is a continuous variable.
Rule or test that can be used to judge how to make a fair decision (plural: criteria).
Part of a plant (normally a leaf or stem) from which a new plant can be grown.
Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
A genetic disorder caused by inheriting two copies of a recessive allele. It causes thick mucus to collect in the lungs, making breathing difficult, and also stops food being digested very well.
Jelly-like part inside a cell where the cell's activities happen.
Process in which complex substances in dead plant and animal biomass are broken down by decomposers into simpler substances.
To break down larger molecules into smaller molecules.
Organism that feeds on dead material, causing decay.
Many fine extensions of a dendron of a neurone that collect impulses from other neurones or receptors.
Extension of a neurone that carries the impulses to the cell body. It ends in many dendrites and is usually shorted than an axon.
Bacteria that break down more complex nitrogen compounds into simpler ones, such as nitrates to nitrites, or nitrites to ammonia.
Substance that slows down the activity of neurones in the brain.
The layer of skin below the surface epidermis where nerve endings, blood vessels and other structures are found.
Disease in which the body cannot control blood glucose concentration at the correct level.
Break down, as when our digestive system breaks up food into simpler substances.
When a variable cannot have a continuous range of options, for example days of the week, shoe sizes.
Deoxyribose nucleic acid. Chemical that makes up genes and chromosomes; the instructions for a cell's growth and activity.
Version of a gene (allele) that will always have an effect (as opposed to a recessive allele, whose effect will not be seen if a dominant allele is present).
Person who gives, such as the person who gives an organ for transplant into another person.
A substance that changes the way the body works.
Muscle or gland in the body that performs an action when an impulse from the nervous system is received.
Another term for ovum.
A gland that makes and releases hormones.
Differences between the characteristics of organisms caused by their environment.
Muscle in the dermis of the skin that raises a body hair.
Decision about what is right or wrong.
The addition of chemicals to water, such as nitrates and phosphates, which encourages plant growth.
Gradual change over a period of time.
When fertilisation happens outside the body of an animal.
The dying out of a species so that it no longer exists.
Waste material from food which was now absorbed by the body.
A classification group that contains genera with similar characteristics.
Family Pedigree Chart
A chart showing which members of a family suffer from a genetic disorder.
The relationship between two organisms where one eats the other.
Able to produce offspring.
Chemical compounds added by farmers to soil to increase the rate of growth of crops.
Vertebrates that have wet scales, gills and lay jelly-coated eggs.
A diagram to show, with arrows, the flow of food and energy from a producer to the animal that eats that producer, the animal that eats that animal, and so on.
A diagram of interlocked food chains that show how the feeding relationships in one habitat are interdependent.
Aquatic species that is an indicator of clean water.
Organism that feeds on dead or decaying material, such as athlete's foot fungus (plural:fungi).
Cell that contains only half the normal number of chromosomes. It joins with another sex cell during fertilisation, to produce a fertilised egg cell, which contains a full set of chromosomes.
A section of DNA that carries the instructions for a characteristic.
Genetic Cross Diagram
Diagram showing how alleles in two parents may form different combinations in the offspring, when their parents reproduce.
A disease caused by alleles.
Variation in characteristic caused by the instructions within cells.
The alleles for a certain characteristic that are found in an organism.
A classification group that contains species with similar characteristics (plural: genera).
Tropism in response to gravity.
When a seed starts to grow a shoot and a root.
Set of plant hormones that can cause seeds to germinate, and flowers and fruits to form.
A part of the body that makes substances and then releases them.
Hormone released by endocrine glands in the pancreas, which increases the blood glucose concentration by causing cells, especially those in the liver, to turn glucose into glycogen.
A sugar, which is produced by the digestion of carbohydrates and is needed by cells for respiration.
A storage material made from glucose.
The place an organism lives in, for example woodland.
Substance that distorts sense perception.
Getting food by eating and digesting the tissues of other organisms.
If both alleles for characteristic are different, the organism is heterozygous for that characteristic.
Controlling the internal environment of the body at stable levels.
An animal that keeps its body temperature more constant than the surroundings, and often warmer, by releasing heat from reactions in its body.
If both alleles for a characteristic are the same, the organism is homozygous for that characteristics.
A substance that is made and released in one part of the body and that has an effect on another part of the body (a chemical messenger).
Organism that provides food for a parasite.
An organism that is the result of breeding together two different species. A hybrid has characteristics from each species.
Area on the seabed where hot gases and water are forced up from below, by being heated by magma below the sea floor.
Part of the brain that controls body temperature.
Against the law, often punishable by a fine or imprisonment.
Electrical signal transmitted along a neurone.
Species that is particularly sensitive to or tolerant of pollution, so that its presence or absence can be used as a measure of the pollution.
Illness that is caused by a microorganism and can be caught from an infected person.
Variation caused by genes.
The feeling that you can't or shouldn't do something.
Hormone released by endocrine glands in the pancreas, which decreases the blood glucose concentration by causing cells, especially those in the liver, to turn glycogen into glucose.
Reproduce with other members of the same group.
Depending on each other.
The conditions inside your body.
When fertilisation happens inside the body of an animal.
Animal with no backbone.
Diagram containing a set of questions or statements that can be used to work out the name of an organism.
An organ that is important in removing extra water and salts from the blood, by producig urine.
The largest division in the classification of organisms.
A large group of complex organisms that have nervous systems.
A large group of organisms that cannot make their own food. They reproduce using spores (rather than seeds) and live attached to their food source. They include moulds, yeast, mushrooms and toadstools.
A large group of organisms that usually have cells containing chloroplasts and can make their own food, using photosynthesis.
A large group of organisms that consist of one cell, which does not have a nucleus. Bacteria are an example.
A large group of organisms that do not fit into any of the other four kingdoms. Algae are an example.
Allowed by law.
Plant of the pea family, including peas and beans.
Mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an alga; different species of lichen are affected differently by air pollution, so they can be used as pollution indicators.
A dangerous disease caused by a protist that caused serious fever, headaches and vomiting and can lead to death.
Vertebrates that have fur, lungs and produce milk on which to feed their young.
Neurone that carries impulses to effectors.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a strain of bacterium that is resistant to many kinds of antibiotics.
Made of more than one cell.
A change in the DNA of a gene.
A relationship between organisms where both benefit.
Fatty covering around the axons of many neurones. It speeds up the transmission of impulses along their length and helps to insulate them from one another.
A drug that makes you feel sleepy.
A process in which the organisms that are best suited to the conditions in their habitats are more likely to survive.
A control mechanism that reacts to a change in a condition (such as temperature) by trying to bring the condition back to a normal level.
Tropism in which the response is away from the stimulus.
Bundle of neurones.
Another term for neurone.
An organ system that includes the brain and nerves, which carries information around an organism.
A cell that transmits electrical impulses in the nervous system.
Impulses passing from neurone to neurone.
Substance that defuses across the gap between two neurones at a synapse, and triggers an impulse to be generated in the neurone on the other side of the synapse.
Stimulant in tobacco smoke which is addictive and makes it difficult to give up smoking.
Bacteria that makes more complex nitrogen compounds from simpler ones, such as nitrates from nitrites, or nitrites from ammonia.
A sequence of processes by which nitrogen moves from the atmosphere through living and dead organisms, into the soil and back to the atmosphere.
Bacteria that can take nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it to more complex nitrogen compounds, such as ammonia.
Normal Distribution Curve
A graph of variation in a characteristic from a population with a bell-shaped curve that shows most values in the middle of the range and a few extreme values.
The central part of an atom containing protons and neutrons. The control centre of a cell (plural: nuclei).
Controlling the amount of water in the body.
Offspring develop in eggs, as in birds.
Female Gamete in plants and animals (plural: ova).
Substance that blocks the transmission of pain responses via neurones to the brain.
Organ in the body that produces some digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucogen.
Organism that lives on or in a host organism and takes food from it while it is alive.
A feeding relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
Microorganism that causes disease.
When doctors study family pedigree charts to assess the probability that a couple may have past on a genetic disorder to their child.
Characteristics that a certain set of alleles cause.
A set of chemical reactions in plants that allow them to produce their own food (glucose) losing water and carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen as a waste product. The process is powered by light from the sun.
Tropism in response to light.
A structure that stops something from entering a certain area. For example, the body has physical barriers like the skin, which stop microbes from getting inside the body.
Plant Growth Substance
A substance released by a part of a plant that has an effect on the cells of that part of another part of the plant, usually causing the cells to grow or develop in a different manner. Another term for this is plant hormone.
An animal whose body temperature varies with the temperature of the environment around it.
The male gamete in plants.
A substance that harms living organisms when released into the environment, often waste products of human activity.
Increase in population size over time
Tropism in which the response is towards the stimulus.
Animal that kills other animals to eat.
An organism that is hunted and killed by a predator.
An animal that eats producers (i.e. a herbivore).
The likelihood of something happening, often shown as a percentage chance. For example, there is a 50% chance it will rain tomorrow.
Organism that makes its own food, such as a plant using photosynthesis.
Simple organisms belonging to the kingdom Protoctista. Most protoctists are unicellular, although some (such as seaweeds) are multicellular. They have complex cells with a nucleus.
Type of one-celled protoctist that requires a source of food (i.e. it cannot photosynthesise as some other protoctists can).
Diagram used to predict the different characteristics that will be present in the offspring of two organisms with known combinations of alleles. You can use the square to work out the probability than offspring will inherit a certain feature.
Pyramid of Biomass
Diagram showing the biomass in each trophic level of a food chain.
How long it takes to respond to a stimulus.
Cell that receives a stimulus and converts it into an electrical impulse to be sent to the brain and/or spinal cord.
Version of a gene (allele) that will only have an effect if the other allele is also recessive.
Response to a stimulus that does not require processing by the brain. The response is automatic.
Connection of a sensory neurone to a motor neurone (often via a relay neurone) that allows reflex actions to occur.
A short type of neurone, found in the spinal cord and brain, that link with sensory, motor and other relay neurones.
Vertebrates that have lungs, dry and scaly skin, and lay leathery-shelled eggs
An organism that has evolved so it is not affected by substances that would usually kill it. In the case of bacteria, no longer killed by antibiotics; in the case of rats, no longer killed by warfarin poison. Organisms may vary in the range if their resistance, so that although some organisms may be killed, others may be made very ill but recover, while a few may be unaffected.
Process that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide, which living organisms use to release energy from food for all their activities.
Action that occurs due to a stimulus.
A ring of populations, in which neighbouring populations that can interbreed but the populations at the two ends of the chain cannot (despite the fact that they may both live in the same area).
Small structure that legume plants make on their roots for nitrogen-fixing bacteria to live in.
Powder that contains hormones called auxins that help plant cuttings to grow roots quickly.
Getting food by digesting the tissues of other organisms outside the body and absorbing the digested food.
Glands at the base of skin hairs that release oil into the skin surface, keeping the skin lubricated and healthy.
An animal that eats primary consumers.
Weedkiller that contains artificial plant hormones and will kill only certain types of plants. Most selective weedkillers kill plants with broad leaves and not those with narrow leaves.
Organ that contains receptor cells.
Neurone that carries pulses from receptors.
Another term for gamete.
Sickle Cell Disease
A genetic disorder caused by inheriting two copies of a recessive allele. It causes tiredness, shortness of breath and periods of extreme pain in the joints.
Aquatic species that is an indicator of polluted water.
Formation of new species, such as when populations of a species are separated geographically and evolve until they are no longer capable of interbreeding.
Each different type of organism is called a species. The members of a species can reproduce with each other to produce offspring which will also be able to reproduce.
The male gametes in animals.
Large bundle of nerves, leading from the brain and down the back.
Something that stays the same, without changing.
Substance that increases the speed of transmission of nerve impulses across synapses.
Change in an environmental factor that is detected by receptors (plural: stimuli).
Aquatic species that is an indicator of clean water.
Layer of fat under the skin.
Survival of the fittest
A gland found in the skin that produces sweat.
Point at which two neurones meet. There is a tiny gap between neurones at a synapse, which cannot transmit an electrical impulse.
Sticky black substance in tobacco smoke that contains carcinogens.
An organ on which a hormone has an effect
The control of temperature inside the body by mechanisms in the body.
Taking an organ from one person and putting it into the body of another (often to save the life of that other person).
One level of the good chain, such as producer, herbivore or carnivore.
A response to a stimulus in which an organism grows towards or away from the stimulus.
Type 1 Diabetes
Type of diabetes in which the pancreas does not produce insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type of diabetes in which cells, especially those in the liver, do not respond to insulin.
Made of one cell.
A nitrogen-rich substance in urine.
Fluid produced by the kidneys, which contains waste material from the body, water and salts.
Differences between characteristics in different organisms.
Narrowing of the blood vessels (capillaries).
Widening of the blood vessels (capillaries).
Organism that transfers a pathogen from one person to another, such as Anopheles mosquito which spreads the protozoan that causes malaria when it bites a human.
Small bone in the backbone of a vertebrate (plural: vertebrae).
Animal with a backbone.
A particle that can infect cells and cause the cells to make copies of the virus, such as the influenza virus.