Flashcards in Biology 2 Keywords Deck (181):
The site on an enzyme molecule that has a special shape that holds the substrate molecule during the reaction.
Movement of molecules into the cell using energy from respiration. It allows the cell to build up a high concentration of certain molecules inside the cell, against a concentration gradient. For example, the way the plant root cells take in mineral salts from the soil.
It is a base (a chemical found in DNA) and pairs up with Thymine.
Adult Stem Cell
A stem cell found in differentiated tissue that can produce a few kinds of differentiated cell.
Respiration that needs oxygen.
The muscular tube that runs from the mouth to the anus including the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Every gene comes in different types called alleles. So a gene for eye colour may come in a 'blue type' allele and a 'brown type' allele.
A small molecule that is the building block of proteins.
A carbohydrase enzyme which breaks down starch to simple sugars.
Respiration that does not need oxygen.
Proteins that bind to the microorganisms that cause disease and destroy them.
Where undigested food is passed out of the body.
A major artery leading away from the heart.
Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.
The formation of a new individual without fertilisation, using the process of mitosis to create offspring identical to the parent organism.
The two strands in a molecule of DNA (in the double helix structure) are linked together at regular intervals by chemicals called bases. The bases are adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine.
(Complementary) Base Pair
The bases always pair up in the same way because of the complementary or matching shape of the molecules. Adenine (A) pairs up with thymine (T) and cytosine (C) pairs up with guanine (G).
A group of three bases that codes for a particular amino acid.
Substance in the human diet from which the body makes vitamin A.
Example of probiotic bacteria.
An alkaline substance made by the liver that helps in the digestion of fats.
Tube that connects the gall bladder to the small intestine.
The variety of species present within a given area.
Tube that connects the blood as it flows around the body.
A ball-shaped mass of chewed food.
Tiny blood vessels with thin walls to allow diffusion of substances into and out of the blood.
Enzymes which catalyse the breakdown of carbohydrates.
Compound made up from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, used for energy by organisms.
The volume of blood the heart can pump out in one minute, calculated using the equation, cardiac output + stroke volume x heart rate.
A substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction.
The basic units of life in which many chemical reactions needed to sustain life (for example, growth) take place.
Thin layer which forms a semi-permeable barrier around the outer surface of the cytoplasm on the cell and controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
Relatively rigid structure that surrounds plant and bacterial cells, which support the cell and help it keep its shape.
Cell walls are made of tough cellulose which supports the call and allow it to keep its shape.
Green substance in chloroplasts that absorbs energy from sunlight.
Organelle in plant cells that contains chlorophyll, and is where photosynthesis takes place.
A fat which is made in the liver and carried around the body in the blood. High levels are associated with an increased risk of heart disease.
The DNA which makes up the chromosomes of a cell.
Thread-like structures found in the nucleus of the cell which carry the genetic information.
Organ system involving the heart and blood vessels which oxygenates blood and moves it around the body.
An individual created by a form of asexual reproduction to produce offspring that is genetically identical to the parent.
Another name for a base triplet.
A situation when a solute is in a gradually increasing concentration from one region to another.
The liquid gel which makes up a lot of the body of a cell and is where many chemical reactions take place.
It is a base (a chemical found in DNA) and pairs up with guanine.
Cell produced from division of a parent cell.
To break down/change shape, as proteins denature with excess heat.
Specialise, develop into different kinds, as in cells that become nerve, muscle or bone cells.
The random movement and spreading of particles. When there is a concentration gradient, there is a net (overall) diffusion of particles from areas of high concentration to regions of lower concentration.
The breakdown of large food insoluble molecules into small, soluble food molecules.
The system of organs which brings about digestion of the food in the body.
A cell that has two sets of chromosomes. In humans, almost all cells except the sperm and egg cells are diploid.
The places in which a certain organism can be found in an area.
When the chromosomes are copied before cell division occurs.
The spiral structure of a DNA molecule, produced by two strands of joined by complementary base pairs.
An area in which all the living organisms and all non-living physical features in the area form a stable relationship that needs no input from outside the area to remain stable.
Instrument which magnifies specimens using a beam of electrons.
The ball of cells produced by cell division of the zygote. A very early stage in the development of a new individual.
Embryonic Stem Cell
A cell from an early stage of division of an embryo that can produce almost any kind of differentiated cell.
Turn into an emulsion, a mixture in which particles of one liquid are suspended in another liquid.
Remove the nucleus from a cell.
An organism's surroundings; made up of very different factors such as air, water, soil and other living organisms.
A protein molecule made by living cells that speeds up the rate of a reaction.
The development of new species over time through a process of natural selection.
Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)
Period of time after exercise in which a greater than usual amount of oxygen is needed by the body for various processes, including the removal of lactic acid cell repair. This used to be known as oxygen debt.
Undigested, waste material.
Chemicals that are used to store energy in organisms.
Part of the structure of a fat or oil.
When two gametes fuse.
Whip-like protein bodies found on the outside of bacterial cells and other cells which beat back and forwards and can be used for movement.
The collection of fossils identified from different periods of time that can be interpreted to form a hypothesis about the evolution of life on Earth.
The preserved traces or remains of an organism which lived a very long time ago.
Foods which are not eaten for nutritional value but which claim to make you healthier.
An organ that stores the bile made by the liver and releases it into the small intestine via the bile duct.
Sex cell (sperm or egg cells), produced in the male or female reproductive organs by meiosis.
A process in the lungs in which oxygen diffuses from the lungs into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the lungs.
A section of DNA which codes for a specific protein.
The code produced by the sequence of bases in genetic material (e.g. DNA).
The process of removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into the DNA in a cell from another organism.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
An organism that has had a gene from another species introduced (e.g. inserting a gene for producing human insulin into a bacterium).
All of the genetic information (DNA) of an organism, as a list in order of every base.
A simple sugar that is broken down in cells to release energy during respiration. It is also produced during photosynthesis.
Part of the structure of a fat or oil.
Genetically engineered rice which produces beta-carotene in the rice grains turning them a golden yellow colour.
Increase in size, length and mass, as well as increase in cell number.
It is a base (a chemical found in DNA) and pairs up with cytosine.
The place where an organism usually lives.
The red iron-containing pigment found in red blood cells.
Having one set of chromosomes, as in gametes.
Chemical which kills plants, usually used on weeds.
Human Genome Project (HGP)
A project to sequence (order) all of the base pairs of the human genome involving scientists from many different countries working together.
Base pairs are joined together by weak hydrogen bonds.
In reproduction, placing an embryo into the uterus of a female animal to develop.
The waste product of anaerobic respiration in animal cells.
Example of probiotic bacteria.
Organ that absorbs water from digested material.
One of the four chambers of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary vein.
One of the four chambers of the heart that receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta.
Instrument which magnifies specimens using light and lenses.
A single factor that when in short supply can limit the rate of a process such as photosynthesis.
Enzyme which digests fats to fatty acids and glycerol.
Organ that has a range of functions including secretion of bile.
An idea that describes the relationship of a substrate and then active site of an enzyme to help explain how enzymes work.
Division of parent cell that produces genetically different haploid cells.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
The molecule formed during DNA transcription that carries the code from the chromosome to a ribosome.
Mitochondrion (plural mitochondria)
The site of cellular respiration where glucose is broken down using oxygen to release energy, which is needed for reactions in the cell.
Division of a parent cell that produces two genetically identical diploid cells.
A change in the base sequence of DNA (often as a result of exposure to radiation).
In chemistry, the positively charged centre of an atom. In physics, the central part of an atom, containing protons and neutrons.
Muscular tube between the mouth and stomach.
A type of carbohydrate which is a common prebiotic.
A group of different tissues working together to carry out a particular function.
A group of organs working together to carry out a particular function in the body.
Tiny structures that carry out specific jobs, for example, nucleus and mitochondria.
The diffusion of water from a region of high concentration of water molecules to a region of lower concentration of water molecules, through a partially permeable membrane.
Organ that makes digestive enzymes and secretes them into the first part of the small intestine.
The cell that divides to produce daughter cells.
Partially Permeable Membrane
A thin sheet of material that will allow certain small molecules to diffuse through it (e.g. water) but not other larger ones.
An example of a protease enzyme found in the stomach.
The value of a variable below which a certain percentage of observations fall. For example the 20th percentile of an ordered set of data indicates that 20% of the data points are the same or lower than this value.
The waves of muscular contraction that move food along the alimentary canal.
Living tissue that transports sugars around a plant.
A series of enzyme-catalysed reactions carried out in the green parts of plants. Carbon dioxide and water combine to form glucose. This process requires light energy from sunlight.
A trap used to catch small animals that move on the ground. The animals are unable to escape.
Plant Stanol Esters
Oily substances found in plants that appear to lower blood cholesterol levels in people.
The liquid component of the blood that carries all the suspended cells and dissolved substances.
A circle of extra DNA found only in bacteria cells.
Cell fragments that are important in the clotting mechanism of the blood.
A chain of amino acids that will form part of a protein.
A net used to collect aquatic organisms from ponds, rivers and streams.
A simple device used to collect small invertebrates.
The numbers of individuals of a species in an area.
Substances which cannot be digested by human digestive enzymes but which act as food for probiotic bacteria in the intestine.
Foods containing live bacteria that produce lactic acid in the gut and may improve the health of your digestive system.
Enzyme which digests protein to amino acids.
The building up of a protein molecule by joining together amino acids.
A polymer made up of amino acids, containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Genes carry the instructions for making proteins.
Arteries that carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
Veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
A square frame of known area, such as 1m2, which is placed on the ground to get a sample of the organisms living in a small area.
A method of sampling where the locations are selected randomly.
Red Blood Cells
Biconcave discs containing haemoglobin that give the blood its red colour and carry oxygen around the body to the tissues.
A sample that has approximately the same characteristics as those of the whole study area.
A series of reactions occurring in all living cells in which glucose is broken down to release energy.
Small structures in the cytoplasm of a cell where mRNA is translated into an amino acid chain.
One of the four chambers of the heart that receives blood from the vena cava.
One of the four chambers of the heart that receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery.
Root Hair Cell
Cells found near the tip of roots that have thin extensions (that look a bit like hairs). Water enters root hair cells by osmosis. The long thin extension gives a large surface area.
Lubricates food and makes it easier to swallow, also contains amylase which begins digestion of carbohydrate.
Looking at a small portion of an area or population.
A thin membrane that separates the two sides of the heart.
The formation of a new individual from the fertilisation of a female gamete (egg cell) by a male gamete (sperm cell). This individual is genetically different from its parent.
Organ where digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed.
Only one, as in an enzyme only catalyses the reaction of one kind of substrate.
A carbohydrate, made by joining together thousands of glucose molecules.
An unspecialised cell that can divide to produce more stem cells or different kinds of specialised cell.
Stomata (singular stoma)
A tiny pore in the lower surface of a leaf, which when open, allows gases to diffuse into and out of the leaf.
Organ that makes acid and some enzymes.
The volume of blood the heart can pump out with each beat.
The substance that is changed by an enzyme in a chemical reaction.
A group of compounds formed from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Surface Area to Volume Ratio
The total amount of surface area of an object divided by its volume. The surface area to volume ratio of a small object or organism is larger than that of a large object of a given shape, for example a cube. The surface area to volume ratio of a wide and thin structure, or a wrinkled structure, is greater than that of a spheroidal one.
A female who is not related to the embryo that is implanted in her uterus to develop.
A net used to collect insects from long grass or the canopy of a tree, by "sweeping" it through the grass or leaves.
A method of sampling where the samples are selected from the population at regular or systematic intervals, (e.g. a sample every metre or every fifth person).
It is a base ( a chemical found in DNA) and pairs up with adenine.
A group of specialised cells that all carry out the same function.
When a strand of mRNA is produced by complementary pairing of bases with one strand of DNA in the nucleus.
Membrane-bound space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap, a store of water and nutrients. It helps to support the plant by keeping the cells rigid.
Flaps of tissue in the heart that stop the blood flowing backwards.
Vessels that transport blood back to the heart.
A major vein leading to the heart.
Fingerlike folds of the lining of the small intestine which greatly increases the surface area for the absorption/diffusion of digested food products into the blood.
White Blood Cells
Several different types of cells that are all part of the body's defence system against disease.
Tissue made of dead hollow cells that transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to other parts of the plant.