Flashcards in BIology Deck (80):
development of dissimilar characteristics in species with common ancestry
genetic drift as result of small # of organisms starting a population
speciation as result of geographic separation of a population of organisms
adaptive change in response to change in environment (ie. bugs and pesticides, bacteria and soap)
maintain uniform characteristics by eliminating deviation
Which hormones are high during ovulation (day 14/15)?
high LH, estrogen, and FSH
day of progesterone peak
day 21-22, helps with implantation
When are FSH and LH lowest?
immediately before menstruation
secretions of anterior pituitary (7)
secretes FLAT PEG
FSH, LH= stimulate gonads
ACTH= stimulate adrenal cortex
TSH= stimulate thyroid
Prolactin= stimulates milk
Endorphins= reduce pain
Growth Hormone= aid in growth
what does pancreas secrete? (2)
secretes insulin (decrease blood glucose) and glucagon (increase glycogen conversion to glycogen and storage)
what does parathyroid secrete? (1)
parathyroid hormone (increase Ca2+ in blood)
what does thyroid secrete? (2)
calcitonin (decrease Ca2+ in blood, promote Ca2+ into bone) and thyroxin (control basal metabolism)
function of descending loop of Henle
reabsorption of water
filtration from circulation to nephron tubule, and block plasma protein from being filtrated
proximal convoluted tubule
reabsorb glucose and amino acids; secrete extra urea and metabolite
distal convoluted tubule
channels activated by aldosterone to actively reabsorb Na+ and water
Where is ADH/ vasopressin made and released? What does it do?
made in hypothalamus and released from posterior pituitary; increase water reabsorption in the collecting duct
released from adrenal cortex to increase Na+ in the distal convoluted tubule and increase blood volume
regulates anterior pituitary via GnRH and secretes ADH and oxytocin
What happens in the thymus?
produce T-Cells--> activate B Cells --> produce antibodies and macrophage (immunoglobulins)
white blood cell derived from bone marrow
production of antibody by patient (ie. vaccine)
injection of antibodies
What are the shapes of these bacteria: cocci, baccili, spirilla?
cocci= spherical, baccili= rod-shaped, spirilla= helical, spiral
contraction of the heart/ pumping
relaxation of heart and filling with blood
Describe the flow of blood from body to the heart
vena cava --> right atrium --> right ventricle --> pulmonary artery --> lung alveoli --> pulmonary vein --> left atrium --> left ventricle --> aorta --> body
blood flow from an artery --> capillary bed --> vein --> secondary capillary bed --> 2nd vein (ie. hepatic from small intestine to liver, hypothalamic from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary)
ribs, skull, vertebrae, pelvis; red bone marrow; used for protection
hand, feet, arms, leg; yellow bone marrow, used for locomotion
Which type of inhibition can be overcome by high concentration of substrate?
cell involved in taste
What is special/different about erythrocytes?
erythrocytes have no DNA/ nucleus/ mitochondria because of hemoglobin, but they can still produce ATP
can survive under aerobic and anaerobic conditions
dies under aerobic conditions
end product of photosynthesis
cellular reaction that makes a larger molecule from smaller ones and needs energy
cellular reaction that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones and releases energy
How does hyperventilation affect pH?
hyperventilation causes decreased concentration of CO2 in blood = increased pH, alkolosis
action potential initiation
influx of Na+ into cell depolarizes, K+ flows out of the cell to repolarize
Which ions have high concentration outside the cell?
Na+, Ca2+, Cl-
Which ions have high concentration inside the cell?
chromatin condense to chromosomes, spindle forms, nuclear membrane disappears, synapsis and crossing over occur
homologous pairs line up at middle and attach to spindle
pairs separate to opposite poles (disjunction)
nuclear membrane forms and cell divides
synthesis phase, interphase (G1-->S-->G2-->M)
separation of homologous pairs (maternal and paternal chromosomes) during meoisis
What does distance between genes on a chromosome tell us?
distance between genes is proportional to percent recombination
division resulting in cells that maintain ability to develop into complete organism
How many ATP are produced by substrate phosphorylation of 1 glucose?
4 ATP (2 from glycolysis and 1 from each TCA cycle)
How many net ATP are produced by oxidative phosphorylation of 1 glucose?
sequence of amino acids
twisting/folding (alpha helices and beta sheets)
interactions of side chains (disulfide and hydrophobic/philic)
interaction of 2 or more polypeptides
Do A-T or G-C bonds have higher boiling point?
G-C because they have 3 H-bonds whereas A-T bonds have 2 H-bonds
A and G (pure As Gold)
T, C, and U
one variable is in logarithmic scale and other variable is in linear scale
site of chemical digestion and absorption of amino acids and monosaccharides (villi)
absorb salt and water
sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter
release NE and Epinephrine (fight or flight)
parasympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter
releases ACh (rest and digest)
DNA is transferred from one bacteria to another
mRNA synthesis from DNA template
polypeptide chain is made from mRNA on ribosome
Factors that affect hemoglobin affinity for oxygen
acidity/ low pH= decreased affinity
increased CO2= decreased affinity
increased O2 in alveoli capillary= increased affinity (cooperation)
conversion of amino acid for entry to TCA cycle
lactic acid fermentation
carbohydrate metabolism during low oxygen to convert pyruvate to lactic acid and regenerate NAD+ so glycolysis can continue
type of skeletal muscle fiber: thick filaments (myosin) and thin filaments (actin, tropomyosin, troponin)
Process of skeletal muscle contraction
Ca2+ is released into cytoplasm --> Ca2+ binds to troponin (thin) --> tropomyosin shifts to expose myosin binding sites --> myosin binds to actin --> contraction
bile (where is it made and what does it do?)
made by liver, secreted by gall bladder in response to CCK hormone to break up fats
base pairing between complementary nucleic acid sequences
all their mitotic divisions occur before birth
What kind of cells can produce ATP via ATP synthase?
Bacteria (in plasma membrane) and Humans (in inner mitochondrial membrane)
radial contraction/relaxation of muscle that propagates like a wave (ie. smooth muscle of GI tract; earthworms)
What is the greatest limit to cell size?
Ratio of surface area to volume because cells need to be able to exchange things with the outside
What are the functions of the liver? (3)
detoxify poison, produce bile, facilitate fat absorption in small intestine by breaking down fat into smaller pieces