Flashcards in Biology Deck (34):
What is respiration?
A chemical reaction that allows cells to release energy from food.
What is metabolic rate?
The rate in which respiration takes place in the body.
Which factors affects the metabolic rate?
Age, gender, genetic inheritance, ratio of fat and muscle in the body, amount of physical activity that is done, etc.
Name three nutrients, their uses and some examples.
(Carbohydrates - Source of energy for life processes - Potatoes, pasta, bread, bananas, sugar and rice.)
(Fats - Source of energy, needed to make cell membranes - Cheese, butter, margarine and oils.) (Proteins - Growth and repair, building cells - Meat, fish, eggs, cheese)
What can an unbalance diet cause?
Malnourishment e.g. Too much food can cause a person to become overweight, too little food can cause a person to become underweight.
What are the two types of WHITE blood cells? What do they do?
Phagocytes - ingest pathogens.
Lymphocytes - Produce specific antibodies to kill a particular pathogen.
Name the two main types of micro-organisms and what diseases they cause.-
Bacteria - Food poisoning, Cholera, Typhoid, Whooping cough, etc.
Viruses - Influenza (flu), Cold, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Chicken pox, AIDs
What is vaccination? How does it work?
Vaccination causes the body to produce enough white blood cells to protect itself against a pathogen. Vaccination involves putting a small amount of an inactive form of a pathogen, or dead pathogen, into the body, the body can then recognise the Pathogen and kill it quickly protecting itself against it.
What are antibiotics used to treat?
kill or stop growth of bacteria (they do NOT work against viruses).
Why is it important to finish a course of antibiotics?
to slow down or stop the development of other strains of resistant bacteria.
What are painkillers used for?
To relieve the symptoms of an infectious disease
What are receptors?
Groups of specialised cells that can detect changes in the environment called stimuli.
Name what some receptors are found in and what they are sensitive to.
Ear: Sound and Position of head
Tongue: Chemicals in food
Nose: Chemicals in air
Skin: Touch, Pressure, Pain and Temperature
What are the stages involving a reflex action?
1.receptor detects a stimulus - a change in the environment
2.sensory neurone sends impulses to relay neurone
3.motor neurone sends impulses to effector
4.effector produces a response.
What does CNS stand for?
Central Nervous System.
What do sensory neurones do?
Carry signals from
receptors to the spinal cord and brain.
What do relay neurones do?
Carry messages from one park of the CNS to another.
What do motor neurones do?
Carry signals from CNS to a effectors.
What are hormones?
Chemical substances that regulate processes in the body.
What is the homeostasis?
The maintenance of a costant internal environment.
What are the 4 main things that need to be controlled in order to maintain a constant internal environment?
1. Water content in the body.
2. Ion (salts) of the body.
3. temperature of the body.
4. Blood sugar levels.
What are the 3 hormones in the menstrual cycle?
1. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
3. Luteinising hormone (LH).
What 2 things does the FSH hormone do?
1. Causes the egg to mature in the ovary.
What 2 things does the Oestrogen hormone do?
1. Stops FSH being produced - so that only one egg matures in a cycle.
2. stimulates the pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone (LH)
What does LH do?
A rise of LH triggers ovulation
What does IVF stand for?
In Vitro Fertilisation
What is IVF?
Where the egg is fertilised outside the woman’s body and then implanted back into her uterus.
How are hormones used in the IVF process?
FSH is used to increase the number of eggs available for fertilisation.
What 2 main things do plants need to survive?
Light and Water
Plants need light and water to carry out what?
What helps make sure that the growth of a plant is towards light and water?
What are the two types of tropism?
Positive and Negative tropism.
What happens in a positive tropism?
The plant grows towards the stimulus