Flashcards in Biology Deck (81):
Outside environment has a lower concentration of solutes.
Ex: human soaking in a bath tub too long.
Regulating what materials must enter and leave the cell.
Diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane.
Ex: water moving in or out of the cell.
Cells which contain a membrane bound nucleus.
Ex: plant, fungus
Cells which do not contain a membrane bound nucleus. Have a nuclear region.
Centrioles. Animal or plant cell?
Cell wall. Animal or plant cell?
Chloroplast. Animal or plant cell?
Fats and oils
Sugars, starches, cellulose
Muscle fibres, enzymes and hormones
Dna and genetic material
Outside has higher concentration of solutes then inside the cell
High concentration to low concentration. No energy by the cell is used up to occur.
Ex. Diffusion and osmosis
Concentration is the same both inside and out of the cell
Ex: cells in a saline intravenous solution.
Particles are needing to move against the concentration ration gradient from low to high.
Basic unit of matter
Combination of atoms
Specialized structure that carries out a specific function.
Basic unit of life organelles work within
Similar cells grouped together to format a specific function.
Two or more tissues working together to carry out a life process
Two or more organs working together
One entire living thing
Die during differentiation and are empty inside. Straw like cells.
Guard cells that forms tiny pores (stomata) to allow gas exchange.
Found in shoot system. Produce a waxy cuticle that prevents water loss in the stem and leaves.
Absorption of water and minerals from the soil. Increase surface area or maximum absorption
Transport materials in the plant.
Found below the epidermis. Provide strength and support for the stem.
Outer layer of cells that covers non-working plants.
Contains everything underground.
Contains everything above ground
Advantages of being multicellular
Specialized cells are more effective and efficient.
Can be much larger than single called organisms.
Life does not depend on a single cell.
1. Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll.
2. Converted to chemical energy and stored in as glucose.
3. Cytoplasmic streaming (movement) occurs to speed material distribution.
Transports water from roots to leaf. Goes up
Transports sugar to the rest of the plant. Goes down
Water + carbon dioxide = glucose + oxygen
6H20 + 6CO2 = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Found in upper epidermis. Creates a 90⋅ angle. Tightly packed.
Between Palisade and lower epidermis. Responsible for gas exchange.
Movement of ions to open and close stomata
1. Light hits the leaf which causes K+ to enter the Guard cell by active transport.
2. Water enters by osmosis.
3. Guard cells swell up due to increased turgor pressure cause the stomata to open.
4. Guard cells shrink when water us not readily available causing the stomata to close.
Attraction of water molecules to other water molecules
Attraction of water molecules to other surfaces.
Ability of the surface of a lipid to cling to the surface of a solid and move along that solid.
Gravitropism in stems
Stems exhibit negative gravitropism -move against force of gravity.
Gravitropism - roots
Positive gravitropism - move with the force of gravity.
Phototropism - stems
Positive phototropism- move toward light
Phototropism - roots
Negative phototropism - move away from light.
Type of plant hormone that promotes cell growth
States that all living things are made of cells
Breakdown of glucose molecules to release chemical energy that a cell can use
Distribution of materials within cells through a circular flow of the cytoplasm
Systems within plants that produce definite responses to specific stimuli
Exchanges both matter and energy with it's surroundings
Shrinking of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane away from the cell wall due to outflow of water in a Hypertonic environment
Idea that life could emerge from non-living matter
Pressure exerted against a cell wall by the water that has entered the cell through osmosis
Gel like; contains the nutrients required by the cell
Defence against invading bacteria, and controlled digestion
Convert chemical energy in sugars into energy the cell can use
Certain particles can go through while others cannot
Nothing can go in our out
Anything / everything can go in / out of the cell
Double layer of outward facing phosphates and inward facing fatty acids that form a cell membrane
Disadvantages of being multicellular
Sometimes function abnormally and spread the abnormally to the rest of the plant
Growth region of the plant with tissue in which cells divide
Required for growth of new tissues and for repairing the damaged cells
Vesicle forms around a particle and moves to the cell membrane and fuses with it
Vesicle forms around a particle and the cell membrane pinches off
Spreading of particles from high concentration to low concentration
Bonds with water
Repels with water
What do animal cells have that plant cells do not?
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
Manufacturing / packaging system
3 types of tissues
Dermal, ground, vascular
2 types of organ systems
Shoot and root
All gas exchange occurs by...
2 types of ground tissues
Palisade, and spongy mesophyll tissue