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Flashcards in Biology Deck (81):
1

Hypotonic solution

Outside environment has a lower concentration of solutes.
Ex: human soaking in a bath tub too long.

2

Cell membrane

Regulating what materials must enter and leave the cell.

3

Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane.
Ex: water moving in or out of the cell.

4

Eykaryotes?

Cells which contain a membrane bound nucleus.
Ex: plant, fungus

5

Prokatyotes

Cells which do not contain a membrane bound nucleus. Have a nuclear region.
Ex: bacteria

6

Centrioles. Animal or plant cell?

Animal

7

Cell wall. Animal or plant cell?

Plants

8

Chloroplast. Animal or plant cell?

Plant

9

Lipids

Fats and oils

10

Carbohydrates

Sugars, starches, cellulose

11

Protein

Muscle fibres, enzymes and hormones

12

Nucleic acid

Dna and genetic material

13

Hypertonic solution

Outside has higher concentration of solutes then inside the cell

14

Passive transport

High concentration to low concentration. No energy by the cell is used up to occur.
Ex. Diffusion and osmosis

15

Isotonic solution

Concentration is the same both inside and out of the cell
Ex: cells in a saline intravenous solution.

16

Active transport

Particles are needing to move against the concentration ration gradient from low to high.

17

Atom

Basic unit of matter

18

Molecule

Combination of atoms

19

Organelle

Specialized structure that carries out a specific function.

20

Cell

Basic unit of life organelles work within

21

Tissue

Similar cells grouped together to format a specific function.
Ex: muscle

22

Organ

Two or more tissues working together to carry out a life process

23

Organ system

Two or more organs working together

24

Organism

One entire living thing

25

Xylem cells

Die during differentiation and are empty inside. Straw like cells.

26

Epidermal cells

Guard cells that forms tiny pores (stomata) to allow gas exchange.

27

Dermal cells

Found in shoot system. Produce a waxy cuticle that prevents water loss in the stem and leaves.

28

Root cells

Absorption of water and minerals from the soil. Increase surface area or maximum absorption

29

Vascular tissue

Transport materials in the plant.

30

Ground tissue

Found below the epidermis. Provide strength and support for the stem.

31

Epidermis

Outer layer of cells that covers non-working plants.

32

Root system

Contains everything underground.

33

Shoot system

Contains everything above ground

34

Advantages of being multicellular

Specialized cells are more effective and efficient.
Can be much larger than single called organisms.
Life does not depend on a single cell.

35

Photosynthesis process

1. Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll.
2. Converted to chemical energy and stored in as glucose.
3. Cytoplasmic streaming (movement) occurs to speed material distribution.

36

Xylem

Transports water from roots to leaf. Goes up

37

Phloem

Transports sugar to the rest of the plant. Goes down

38

Photosynthesis formula

Water + carbon dioxide = glucose + oxygen

6H20 + 6CO2 = C6H12O6 + 6O2

39

Palisade tissue

Found in upper epidermis. Creates a 90⋅ angle. Tightly packed.

40

Spongy tissue

Between Palisade and lower epidermis. Responsible for gas exchange.

41

Movement of ions to open and close stomata

1. Light hits the leaf which causes K+ to enter the Guard cell by active transport.
2. Water enters by osmosis.
3. Guard cells swell up due to increased turgor pressure cause the stomata to open.
4. Guard cells shrink when water us not readily available causing the stomata to close.

42

Cohesion

Attraction of water molecules to other water molecules

43

Adhesion

Attraction of water molecules to other surfaces.

44

Capillary Acton

Ability of the surface of a lipid to cling to the surface of a solid and move along that solid.

45

Gravitropism in stems

Stems exhibit negative gravitropism -move against force of gravity.

46

Gravitropism - roots

Positive gravitropism - move with the force of gravity.

47

Phototropism - stems

Positive phototropism- move toward light

48

Phototropism - roots

Negative phototropism - move away from light.

49

Auxin

Type of plant hormone that promotes cell growth

50

Cell theory

States that all living things are made of cells

51

Cellular respiration

Breakdown of glucose molecules to release chemical energy that a cell can use

52

Cytoplasmic streaming

Distribution of materials within cells through a circular flow of the cytoplasm

53

Control systems

Systems within plants that produce definite responses to specific stimuli

54

Open system

Exchanges both matter and energy with it's surroundings

55

Plasmolysis

Shrinking of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane away from the cell wall due to outflow of water in a Hypertonic environment

56

Spontaneous generation

Idea that life could emerge from non-living matter

57

Turgor pressure

Pressure exerted against a cell wall by the water that has entered the cell through osmosis

58

Cytoplasm

Gel like; contains the nutrients required by the cell

59

Vacuoles

Stores nutrients

60

Lysosomes

Defence against invading bacteria, and controlled digestion

61

Mitochondria

Convert chemical energy in sugars into energy the cell can use

62

Semi-permeable

Certain particles can go through while others cannot

63

Impermeable

Nothing can go in our out

64

Permeable

Anything / everything can go in / out of the cell

65

Phospholipid bilayar

Double layer of outward facing phosphates and inward facing fatty acids that form a cell membrane

66

Disadvantages of being multicellular

Sometimes function abnormally and spread the abnormally to the rest of the plant

67

Mitosis

Growth region of the plant with tissue in which cells divide

68

Meristem region

Required for growth of new tissues and for repairing the damaged cells

69

Exocytosis ("outside")

Vesicle forms around a particle and moves to the cell membrane and fuses with it

70

Endocytosis ("inside")

Vesicle forms around a particle and the cell membrane pinches off

71

Diffusion

Spreading of particles from high concentration to low concentration

72

Hydrophilic

Bonds with water

73

Hydrophobic

Repels with water

74

Ribosomes

Protein builders

74

What do animal cells have that plant cells do not?

Centrioles

75

Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

Manufacturing / packaging system

76

3 types of tissues

Dermal, ground, vascular

77

2 types of organ systems

Shoot and root

78

All gas exchange occurs by...

Diffusion

79

2 types of ground tissues

Palisade, and spongy mesophyll tissue

80

Where does cellular respiration take place?

Mitochondria